Family: Araneidae Clerck,1757 [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spiderfam:0102] Detail
In synonymy:
Epeirella Mello-Leitão, 1941 = Eriophora Simon, 1864 (Levi, 2002: 562)
Gen. Eriophora Simon, 1864 [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidergen:01476] Detail
N.B.: considered a senior synonym of Epeirella Mello-Leitão, 1941d: 149, type E. tucumana Mello-Leitão, 1941, by Levi, 2002: 562; see note under Pararaneus.
Transferred to other genera:
Eriophora aeronavis Mello-Leitão, 1947 -- see Parawixia
Eriophora albocincta (Mello-Leitão, 1945) -- see Alpaida
Eriophora annulata (Keyserling, 1886) -- see Backobourkia
Eriophora astridae (Strand, 1917) -- see Plebs
Eriophora aurea (Saito, 1934) -- see Plebs
Eriophora baotianmanensis (Hu, Wang & Wang, 1991) -- see Plebs
Eriophora bistriata (Rengger, 1836) -- see Parawixia
Eriophora brouni (Urquhart, 1885) -- see Backobourkia
Eriophora burmeisteri (Holmberg, 1876) -- see Parawixia
Eriophora collina (Keyserling, 1886) -- see Backobourkia
Eriophora decorosa (Urquhart, 1894) -- see Acroaspis
Eriophora flava Zhu & Song, 1994 -- see Plebs
Eriophora flavomaculata (Yaginuma, 1955) -- see Plebs
Eriophora heroine (L. Koch, 1871) -- see Backobourkia
Eriophora himalayaensis (Tikader, 1975) -- see Plebs
Eriophora migra Zhu & Song, 1994 -- see Plebs
Eriophora oculosa Zhu & Song, 1994 -- see Plebs
Eriophora omnicolor (Keyserling, 1893) -- see Araneus
Eriophora pinea (Yin, Wang, Xie & Peng, 1990) -- see Plebs
Eriophora plumiopedella (Yin, Wang & Zhang, 1987) -- see Plebs
Eriophora poecila (Zhu & Wang, 1994) -- see Plebs
Eriophora sachalinensis (Saito, 1934) -- see Plebs
Eriophora shaanxiensis Zhu & Wang, 1994 -- see Plebs
Eriophora tokachiana (Saito, 1934) -- see Plebs
Eriophora tricentra Zhu & Song, 1994 -- see Plebs
Eriophora tubulofaciens (Hingston, 1932) -- see Micrepeira
Eriophora ventricosella (Roewer, 1942) -- see Backobourkia
Eriophora wagenknechti Mello-Leitão, 1940 -- see Molinaranea
Eriophora wangi Zhu & Song, 1994 -- see Plebs
Eriophora yanbaruensis Tanikawa, 2000 -- see Plebs
In synonymy:
Eriophora acacesiiformis (Caporiacco, 1954, T from Araneus) = Eriophora nephiloides (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1991a: 177).
Eriophora argyronota (Mello-Leitão, 1939, T from Araneus) = Eriophora edax (Blackwall, 1863) (Levi, 1991a: 177).
Eriophora balaustina (McCook, 1888, removed from S of E. circulata) = Eriophora ravilla (C. L. Koch, 1844) (Levi, 1971b: 287).
Eriophora blattea (Urquhart, 1887, T from Araneus) = Eriophora pustulosa (Walckenaer, 1841) (Court & Forster, 1988: 104).
Eriophora capitalis (L. Koch, 1871, T from Araneus) = Eriophora transmarina (Keyserling, 1865) (Dondale, 1966: 1164, sub Araneus).
Eriophora edax cauca (Strand, 1915) = Eriophora edax (Blackwall, 1863) (Levi, 1971b: 296).
Eriophora geayi (Caporiacco, 1954, T from Araneus) = Eriophora edax (Blackwall, 1863) (Levi, 1991a: 178).
Eriophora hispida (C. L. Koch, 1844, T from Araneus) = Eriophora fuliginea (C. L. Koch, 1838) (Levi, 1971b: 290).
Eriophora leucisca (Urquhart, 1892, T from Araneus) = Eriophora pustulosa (Walckenaer, 1841) (Court & Forster, 1988: 104).
Eriophora messalina (Hasselt, 1888, T from Araneus) = Eriophora fuliginea (C. L. Koch, 1838) (Levi, 1971b: 290).
Eriophora minax (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1893) = Eriophora ravilla (C. L. Koch, 1844) (Levi, 1971b: 287).
Eriophora musiva (Hasselt, 1888, T from Araneus, nomen oblitum) = Eriophora nephiloides (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889) (Levi, 1991a: 179).
Eriophora nicaraguensis (Keyserling, 1885) = Eriophora ravilla (C. L. Koch, 1844) (Levi, 1971b: 287).
Eriophora producta (L. Koch, 1867) = Eriophora transmarina (Keyserling, 1865) (Dondale, 1966: 1164, sub Araneus).
Eriophora purpurascens (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889) = Eriophora fuliginea (C. L. Koch, 1838) (Levi, 1971b: 290).
Eriophora thyridota (Thorell, 1870, T from Araneus) = Eriophora transmarina (Keyserling, 1865) (Dondale, 1966: 1164, sub Araneus).
Eriophora trapezoides (Karsch, 1879, T from Singa) = Eriophora fuliginea (C. L. Koch, 1838) (Levi, 1971b: 290).
Eriophora ursina (Keyserling, 1865) = Eriophora fuliginea (C. L. Koch, 1838) (Levi, 1971b: 290).
Eriophora variolata (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889, removed from S of E. edax) = Eriophora ravilla (C. L. Koch, 1844) (Levi, 1971b: 287).
Eriophora viridis (Keyserling, 1865, T from Araneus) = Eriophora transmarina (Keyserling, 1865) (Dondale, 1966: 1164, sub Araneus).
Nomina dubia:
Eriophora bivariolata (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889d: 27, pl. 6, f. 15, mf) -- Levi, 1971b: 287.
Eriophora circulata (Walckenaer, 1841: 79, f, originally in Epeira) -- Levi, 1971b: 286.
Eriophora nephiloides trapezoidalis (Franganillo, 1930: 30, f, 1946: 98, f. 3, m, Cuba, T from Araneus by Brignoli, 1983c: 268) -- Levi, 1991a: 181.
Eriophora tucumana (Mello-Leitão, 1941d: 149, pl. VII, f. 31, originally in Epeirella, j, Brazil) -- Levi, 2002: 562.
Eriophora biapicata (L. Koch, 1871) | m f | Australia     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:015875]
Epeira biapicata L. Koch, 1871: 54, pl. 4, f. 4 (Df).
Araneus transmarinus Dondale, 1966: 1164 (S, rejected).
Eriophora biapicata Davies, 1980b: 128, f. 9-15 (removed f from S of E. transmarina, Dm).
Eriophora conica (Yin, Wang & Zhang, 1987) | m f | China     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017160]
Zilla conica Yin, Wang & Zhang, 1987: 63, f. 8-14 (Dmf).
Zilla conica Yin et al., 1997d: 398, f. 288a-g (mf).
Zilla conica Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 310, f. 184L-M, 185A-B, M (mf).
Eriophora conica Yin et al., 2012: 680, f. 336a-g (Tmf from Zilla).
Eriophora edax (Blackwall, 1863) | m f | USA to Brazil     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:015878]
Epeira edax Blackwall, 1863a: 30 (Dmf).
Eriophora edax Banks, 1909a: 210.
Araneus edax Petrunkevitch, 1911: 290.
Aranea edax cauca Strand, 1916b: 111 (Df).
Eriophora edax Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 325, f. 205-207 (mf).
Araneus argyronotus Mello-Leitão, 1939g: 111, f. 14 (Df).
Eriophora edax Bryant, 1948a: 62, f. 7 (f).
Araniella geayi Caporiacco, 1954: 104, f. 24 (Df).
Eriophora edax Levi, 1971b: 296, f. 35-48 (mf, S).
Araneus geayi Levi, 1974b: 293 (Tf from Araniella).
Eriophora edax Levi, 1991a: 177-178 (S).
Eriophora edax Levi, 2002: 541, f. 112-113 (f).
Eriophora flavicoma (Simon, 1880) | m f | New Caledonia, Loyalty Is.     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:015879]
Epeira flavicoma Simon, 1880i: 168 (Df).
Araneus flavicoma Berland, 1924a: 220 (Dm).
Eriophora flavicoma Archer, 1951a: 21 (Tmf from Araneus).
Eriophora fuliginea (C. L. Koch, 1838) | m f | Honduras to Brazil     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:015880]
Epeira fuliginea C. L. Koch, 1838: 58, f. 375 (Df).
Epeira hispida C. L. Koch, 1844: 71, f. 889 (Dm).
Epeira ursina Keyserling, 1865: 822, pl. 19, f. 3-5 (Df).
Epeira trapezoides Karsch, 1879h: 107 (Df).
Epeira messalina Hasselt, 1888: 181, pl. 6, f. 1-2 (Df).
Epeira purpurascens O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889d: 33, pl. 7, f. 4-5 (Dmf).
Epeira purpurescens Keyserling, 1893: 226, pl. 11, f. 168 (mf).
Epeira ursina Keyserling, 1893: 229, pl. 11, f. 170 (f).
Araneus fuligineus Simon, 1895a: 803.
Araneus hispidus Simon, 1895a: 803.
Araneus messalina Simon, 1895a: 803.
Araneus purpurascens Simon, 1898i: 873.
Eriophora purpurascens F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1903a: 463, pl. 43, f. 14-15 (mf).
Araneus trapezoides Petrunkevitch, 1911: 319.
Araneus ursinus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 322.
Eriophora ursina Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 254 (Tf from Araneus).
Singa trapezoides Mello-Leitão, 1941b: 260 (Tf from Araneus).
Eriophora fuliginea Levi, 1971b: 290, f. 25-34 (Tf from Araneus, Sm).
Eriophora fuliginea Levi, 2002: 547, f. 192 (m).
Eriophora nephiloides (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889) | m f | Guatemala to Guyana     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:015882]
Epeira musiva Hasselt, 1888: 184, pl. 5, f. 5-7 (Df; nomen oblitum).
Epeira nephiloides O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889d: 32, pl. 7, f. 1-2 (Df).
Epeira nephiloides Keyserling, 1893: 222, pl. 11, f. 165 (f).
Epeira nephiloides McCook, 1894: 190, pl. 14, f. 5-6, pl. 22, f. 3 (f).
Aranea nephiloides F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1904: 511, pl. 48, f. 22 (f).
Eriophora nephiloides Banks, 1909a: 210.
Araneus musivus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 305.
Araneus nephiloides Petrunkevitch, 1911: 306.
Araneus acacesiiformis Caporiacco, 1954: 108, f. 27, 27a (Df).
Eriophora nephiloides Levi, 1971b: 298, f. 49-58 (f, Dm).
Eriophora nephiloides Levi, 1991a: 177-179 (S).
Eriophora neufvilleorum (Lessert, 1930) | m f | Congo, Ethiopia     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:015883]
Araneus neufvilleorum Lessert, 1930: 641, f. 17-18 (Dmf).
Eriophora neufvilleorum Archer, 1951a: 21 (Tmf from Araneus).
Eriophora pustulosa (Walckenaer, 1841) | m f | Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:015885]
Epeira pustulosa Walckenaer, 1841: 132 (Df).
Epeira verrucosa Walckenaer, 1841: 135 (Df).
Epeira verrucosa Keyserling, 1864: 139, pl. 6, f. 20-21 (f).
Epeira verrucosa L. Koch, 1872a: 112, pl. 9, f. 4 (f, Dm).
Epeira brounii Urquhart, 1885: 32, pl. 10, f. 5 (m, misidentified).
Epeira corrugatum Urquhart, 1887: 72, pl. 7, f. 1 (Dmf).
Epeira pocillator Urquhart, 1887: 74 (Dmf).
Epeira oblitera Urquhart, 1887: 77 (Df).
Epeira mulleola Urquhart, 1888: 118, pl. 41, f. 6 (Df).
Epeira helveo-guttata Urquhart, 1888: 119 (Df).
Epeira mulleola Urquhart, 1889a: 147 (Dm).
Epeira ostri-brunnea Urquhart, 1890c: 243, 250, pl. 17, f. 5 (Dmf).
Epeira atri-apiata Urquhart, 1891a: 156 (Dm).
Epeira simulata Urquhart, 1892b: 242 (Df).
Epeira leucisca Urquhart, 1892b: 245 (Df).
Epeira blattea Urquhart, 1893a: 179 (Dm).
Araneus pustulosa Dalmas, 1917a: 379, f. 46, 49 (mf).
Araneus pustulosus Main, 1964: 100, f. G (f).
Araneus pustulosus Hickman, 1967: 64, f. 112-114 (mf).
Aranea pustulosa Forster, 1967: 17, f. 10, 31 (mf).
Araneus pustulosus Forster & Forster, 1973: 27, f. 3c, 6c (mf).
Araneus pustulosus Main, 1977b: 100, f. 5 (f).
Eriophora pustulosa Court & Forster, 1988: 104, f. 353, 516-530 (Tmf from Araneus, S).
Eriophora pustulosa Paquin, Vink & Dupérré, 2010: 49, f. 25.4-5 (mf).
Eriophora ravilla (C. L. Koch, 1844) * | m f | USA to Brazil     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:015886]
Epeira ravilla C. L. Koch, 1844: 73, f. 890 (Df).
Epeira nicaraguensis Keyserling, 1885: 532, pl. 13, f. 31 (Df).
Epeira balaustina McCook, 1888b: 198 (Df).
Epeira variolata O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1889d: 46, pl. 6, f. 14 (Dmf).
Epeira bivariolata Keyserling, 1892: 100, pl. 5, f. 74 (m, using nomen dubium).
Epeira nicaraguensis Keyserling, 1893: 214, pl. 10, f. 159 (f).
Epeira minax O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1893b: 112, pl. 15, f. 1 (Df).
Epeira balaustina McCook, 1894: 155, pl. 4, f. 2 (f).
Epeira bivariolata McCook, 1894: 159, pl. 5, f. 5-6 (mf, using nomen dubium).
Epeira ravilla McCook, 1894: 161, pl. 5, f. 7 (f, Dm).
Eustala variolata Simon, 1898i: 873.
Eriophora variolata F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1903a: 464.
Eriophora minax F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1903a: 464, pl. 44, f. 3 (f).
Epeira bivariolata F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1903a: 464, pl. 44, f. 1-2 (mf, using nomen dubium).
Eriophora ravilla F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1904: 465.
Aranea nicaraguensis F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1904: 519.
Eriophora balaustina Banks, 1909b: 161.
Aranea circulata Comstock, 1910: 177, f. 16-19 (m; cf. Levi, 1971b: 287).
Araneus balaustinus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 281.
Araneus minax Petrunkevitch, 1911: 303.
Araneus nicaraguensis Petrunkevitch, 1911: 306.
Araneus ravillus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 312.
Araneus variolatus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 323.
Eriophora circulata Comstock, 1940: 117, 517, f. 108-111, 538 (m).
Eriophora nicaraguensis Mello-Leitão, 1948: 164 (Tf from Araneus).
Eriophora ravilla Levi, 1971b: 286, f. 7-24 (mf, S).
Eriophora ravilla Edwards, 1986: 1, f. 1-2 (m).
Eriophora ravilla Breene et al., 1993: 103, f. 154A-D (mf).
Eriophora ravilla Cabra-García & Hormiga, 2020: 1017, f. 21E, 24C-D, 26D, 32B, 38A, 46C, 47D, 51C, 54D, 58B, 60C, 62C, 64C, 74A-F, 102B, 108A-F (mf).
Eriophora transmarina (Keyserling, 1865) | m f | New Guinea, Australia, Samoa     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:015889]
Epeira transmarina Keyserling, 1865: 814, pl. 18, f. 15-16 (Df).
Epeira viridis Keyserling, 1865: 812, pl. 18, f. 11-12 (Df).
Epeira producta L. Koch, 1867b: 178 (Df).
Epeira thyridota Thorell, 1870c: 367 (Df).
Epeira thyridota L. Koch, 1871: 52, pl. 4, f. 3, pl. 7, f. 1 (f, Dm).
Epeira producta L. Koch, 1871: 55, pl. 4, f. 5-7 (f, Dm).
Epeira capitalis L. Koch, 1871: 58, pl. 5, f. 1 (Df).
Epeira transmarina Keyserling, 1886a: 139, pl. 11, f. 4 (Dm).
Epeira capitalis Hogg, 1899: 139, pl. 13, f. 3, 4b (f).
Epeira producta Hogg, 1899: 139, pl. 13, f. 4, 4a (f).
Araneus productus Rainbow, 1909: 222.
Aranea producta Strand, 1913c: 608.
Araneus capitalis Berland, 1938: 173, f. 129-130 (Dm).
Eriophora producta Archer, 1951a: 21 (Tmf from Araneus).
Eriophora transmarina Archer, 1951a: 21 (Tmf from Araneus).
Araneus productus Chrysanthus, 1960: 30, f. 34, 47, 64, 71 (mf).
Araneus transmarinus Main, 1964: 100, f. B-F (f).
Araneus transmarinus Dondale, 1966: 1164, f. 2D-G (mf, S).
Eriophora transmarina Davies, 1980b: 126, f. 1-8, pl. IB (mf, S).
Eriophora transmarina Davies, 1988b: 300, f. 24 (mf).
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