Family: Theridiidae Sundevall,1833 [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spiderfam:0099] Detail
In synonymy:
Chacoca Badcock, 1932 = Latrodectus Walckenaer, 1805 (Levi, 1959c: 18)
Gen. Latrodectus Walckenaer, 1805 [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidergen:00702] Detail
N.B.: considered a senior synonym of Chacoca Badcock, 1932 by Levi, 1959c: 18.
In synonymy:
Latrodectus agoyangyang Plantilla & Mabalay, 1935 = Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1959c: 27).
Latrodectus albomaculatus Franganillo, 1930 = Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1959c: 27).
Latrodectus atritus Urquhart, 1890 = Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 (Vink et al., 2008: 599).
Latrodectus carteri Badcock, 1932 = Latrodectus antheratus (Badcock, 1932) (Abalos, 1980: 43, contra Levi, 1959c: 39).
Latrodectus concinnus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1904 = Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841 (Smithers, 1944: 301).
Latrodectus cretaceus Badcock, 1932 = Latrodectus antheratus (Badcock, 1932) (Mello-Leitão, 1946b: 34, sub L. carteri).
Latrodectus distinctus (Badcock, 1932, removed from S of L. curacaviensis) = Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841 (Abalos, 1980: 49, contra Levi, 1959c: 39).
Latrodectus flavodorsatus (Badcock, 1932) = Latrodectus antheratus (Badcock, 1932) (Abalos, 1980: 43, contra Levi, 1959c: 39).
Latrodectus foliatus Mello-Leitão, 1940 (removed from S of L. mactans) = Latrodectus curacaviensis (Müller, 1776) (Levi, 1959c: 39, but see also Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1965c: 58).
Latrodectus geometricus modestus Caporiacco, 1949 = Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841 (Levi, 1959c: 21).
Latrodectus geometricus obscuratus Caporiacco, 1949 = Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841 (Levi, 1959c: 21).
Latrodectus geometricus subalbicans Caporiacco, 1949 = Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841 (Levi, 1959c: 21).
Latrodectus hahli Dahl, 1902 = Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1959c: 27).
Latrodectus hasselti ancorifer Dahl, 1902 = Latrodectus hasselti Thorell, 1870 (Levi, 1959c: 27, sub Pacific populations of L. mactans).
Latrodectus hasselti aruensis Strand, 1911 = Latrodectus hasselti Thorell, 1870 (Levi, 1959c: 27, sub Pacific populations of L. mactans).
Latrodectus hasselti indicus Simon, 1897 = Latrodectus hasselti Thorell, 1870 (Levi, 1959c: 27, sub Pacific populations of L. mactans).
Latrodectus incertus Lawrence, 1927 (removed from S of L. mactans) = Latrodectus renivulvatus Dahl, 1902 (Lotz, 1994a: 46, contra Levi, 1959c: 27).
Latrodectus luzonicus Dahl, 1902 = Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1959c: 27).
Latrodectus mactans albomaculatus Franganillo, 1930 = Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1959c: 27).
Latrodectus mactans insularis Dahl, 1902 = Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1959c: 27).
Latrodectus mactans insularis lunifer Dahl, 1902 = Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1959c: 27).
Latrodectus mactans mexicanus Gonzalez, 1954 = Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1959c: 28).
Latrodectus mactans texanus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935 = Latrodectus hesperus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935 (Kaston, 1970: 39, contra Levi, 1959c: 28).
Latrodectus melanozanthus (Urquhart, 1887, removed from S of L. hasselti) = Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 (Vink et al., 2008: 599).
Latrodectus pallidus pavlovskii Charitonov, 1954 = Latrodectus pallidus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872 (Levi, 1959c: 38).
Latrodectus sagittifer Dahl, 1902 = Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1959c: 27).
Latrodectus schuchii C. L. Koch, 1836 = Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775) (Levi, 1959c: 26, but see Schmidt, Piepho & Samm, 2001: 1).
Latrodectus stuhlmanni Dahl, 1902 (removed from S of L. mactans) = Latrodectus cinctus Blackwall, 1865 (Lotz, 1994a: 28, contra Levi, 1959c: 27).
Latrodectus tadzhicus Marusik & Tarabaev, 1995 = Latrodectus dahli Levi, 1959 (Knoflach & van Harten, 2002: 333).
Latrodectus zebrinius (Urquhart, 1890, removed from S of L. hasselti) = Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 (Vink et al., 2008: 599).
Nomina dubia:
Latrodectus dotatus C. L. Koch, 1841a: 115, f. 683 (m) -- Levi, 1959c: 26.
Latrodectus limacidus Cantor, 1842: 491 (China) -- Roewer, 1955c: 1537.
Latrodectus pallidus immaculatus Caporiacco, 1933: 323 (f, Libya) -- Levi, 1959c: 26.
Latrodectus antheratus (Badcock, 1932) | m f | Paraguay, Argentina     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007799]
Chacoca antherata Badcock, 1932: 10, f. 5 (Dm).
Chacoca flavodorsata Badcock, 1932: 11, f. 6 (Df).
Latrodectus carteri Badcock, 1932: 13, f. 8 (Df).
Latrodectus cretaceus Badcock, 1932: 13 (Df).
Latrodectus carteri Mello-Leitão, 1946b: 34 (S).
Latrodectus curacaviensis Levi, 1959c: 38, f. 68 (f, S, rejected).
Latrodectus antheratus Abalos, 1980: 43, f. 18, 45-55 (mf, removed from S, S).
Latrodectus apicalis Butler, 1877 | f | Ecuador (Galapagos Is.)     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007800]
Latrodectus apicalis Butler, 1877: 75, pl. 13, f. 5 (Df).
Latrodectus apicalis Roth & Craig, 1970: 121 (removed from S of L. mactans).
Latrodectus bishopi Kaston, 1938 | m f | USA     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007802]
Latrodectus mactans bishopi Kaston, 1938e: 60 (Dmf).
Latrodectus curacaviensis Levi, 1958: 1055 (S, rejected).
Latrodectus bishopi McCrone & Levi, 1964: 15, f. 2, 4-7 (mf, removed from S of L. curacaviensis, elevated from subspecies of L. mactans).
Latrodectus cinctus Blackwall, 1865 | m f | Cape Verde Is., Africa, Kuwait, Iran     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007803]
Latrodectus cinctus Blackwall, 1865b: 341 (Df).
Latrodectus stuhlmanni Dahl, 1902a: 45 (Df).
Latrodectus cinctus F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902c: 256, pl. 26, f. 4f (f).
Latrodectus mactans Levi, 1959c: 26 (S, rejected).
Latrodectus cinctus Lotz, 1994a: 28, f. 4a-c, 5, 6a-e (removed f from S of L. mactans, Dm, S).
Latrodectus cinctus Lotz, 1994b: 12, f. 4a-c, 5, 6a-e (mf).
Latrodectus cinctus Knoflach & van Harten, 2002: 332, f. 9-11 (f).
Latrodectus cinctus Zamani et al., 2014: 59, f. 2D, 3D, 4D (mf).
Latrodectus corallinus Abalos, 1980 | m f | Argentina     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007804]
Latrodectus corallinus Abalos, 1980: 39, f. 19, 31-37 (Dmf).
Latrodectus curacaviensis (Müller, 1776) | m f | Lesser Antilles, South America     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007805]
Aranea curacaviensis Müller, 1776b: 342 (Df).
Latrodectus curacaviensis Thorell, 1875e: 141 (Dm).
Latrodectus geographicus Hasselt, 1888: 176, pl. 5, f. 1-4 (Df).
Latrodectus geographicus F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902a: 379, pl. 35, f. 21-22 (f, Dm).
Latrodectus curacaviensis F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902c: 254, pl. 27, f. 4.
Latrodectus curacaviensis Tullgren, 1905: 27, pl. 3, f. 7 (f).
Latrodectus curacaviensis Carbonell, 1923a: 351, f. 3.
Latrodectus foliatus Mello-Leitão, 1940b: 35, f. 33, pl. I, f. 4 (Dmf).
Latrodectus mactans Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1942: 16 (S, rejected).
Latrodectus curacaviensis Levi, 1959c: 38, f. 2-4, 16-18, 35-36, 52, 70-71 (mf in part, S).
Latrodectus curacaviensis Carcavallo, 1960: 91, f. 2, 6, 9 (mf).
Latrodectus curacaviensis McCrone & Levi, 1964: 13, f. 1, 16-17 (f).
Latrodectus sp. Bücherl, 1965: 95, f. 1-6 (m).
Latrodectus curacaviensis Abalos, 1980: 46, f. 56 (f).
Latrodectus dahli Levi, 1959 | m f | Morocco to Central Asia     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007806]
Latrodectus dahli Levi, 1959c: 42, f. 11-12 (Df).
Latrodectus dahli Tyschchenko & Ergashev, 1974: 934, f. 1-5, 9 (f, Dm).
Latrodectus dahli Levy & Amitai, 1983: 55, f. 37-41 (mf).
Latrodectus dahli Ergashev, 1990: 65, f. 31.1-5, 9 (mf).
Latrodectus tadzhicus Marusik & Tarabaev, 1995: 212, f. 1-4 (Dmf).
Latrodectus dahli Marusik & Tarabaev, 1995: 213, f. 5-6 (f).
Latrodectus dahli Levy, 1998b: 108, f. 198-202 (mf).
Latrodectus dahli Knoflach & van Harten, 2002: 333, f. 3, 12-19 (mf, S).
Latrodectus dahli Knoflach, 2002b: 169, f. 4a (f).
Latrodectus dahli Knoflach, 2004: 184, f. 24b (f).
Latrodectus dahli Kakhki, 2005: 56, f. 4A-E (mf).
Latrodectus dahli Jäger & Gromov, 2011: 188, f. 1-2 (f).
Latrodectus dahli Zamani et al., 2014: 59, f. 2A, 3A, 4B (mf).
Latrodectus diaguita Carcavallo, 1960 | m f | Argentina     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007807]
Latrodectus diaguita Carcavallo, 1960: 85, f. 3-4, 7, 10 (Dmf).
Latrodectus mactans Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1965c: 57, f. 8 (f, S, rejected).
Latrodectus diaguita Abalos, 1980: 38, f. 24-30 (mf, removed from S of L. mactans).
Latrodectus elegans Thorell, 1898 | m f | India, Myanmar, China, Japan     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:038316]
Latrodectus elegans Thorell, 1898: 293 (Df).
Latrodectus hasselti elegans Simon, 1909e: 97.
Latrodectus mactans Zhu, 1998: 294, f. 199A-C (f, misidentified).
Latrodectus mactans Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 123, f. 63H-I (f, misidentified).
Latrodectus elegans Ono, 2002d: 3, f. 1 (apparently considered distinct from L. hasselti).
Latrodectus elegans Yoshida, 2003a: 47, f. 91-96 (mf, removed from S of L. hasselti, contra Levi, 1959c: 27, sub Pacific populations of L. mactans).
Latrodectus elegans Yoshida, 2009b: 363, f. 69-73 (mf).
Latrodectus elegans Kananbala et al., 2012: 2719, f. 1-5, images 1-5 (f).
Latrodectus erythromelas Schmidt & Klaas, 1991 | m f | India, Sri Lanka     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007808]
Latrodectus erythromelas Schmidt & Klaas, 1991: 7, f. 1 (Dmf).
Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841 | m f | Africa. Introduced to both Americas, Poland, Near East, Pakistan, India, Thailand, Japan, Papua New Guinea, Australia, Hawaii     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007809]
Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841a: 117, f. 684 (Df).
Latrodectus geometricus Thorell, 1875e: 138, pl. 25, f. 4 (f).
Theridium zickzack Karsch, 1878b: 311, pl. 8, f. 1 (Df).
Latrodectus geometricus Keyserling, 1884a: 148, pl. 7, f. 92 (f, Dm).
Latrodectus geometricus F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902a: 378, pl. 35, f. 23-24.
Latrodectus geometricus F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902c: 252, pl. 27, f. 7.
Latrodectus concinnus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1904b: 152, pl. 10, f. 3-4 (Dmf).
Latrodectus geometricus Strand, 1908f: 464, f. B, D (f).
Latrodectus geometricus Carbonell, 1923a: 351, f. 1.
Latrodectus geometricus Brazil & Vellard, 1926: 266, pl. 22, 2 unnumbered figs. (mf).
Latrodectus geometricus Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 175, f. 14-16 (f).
Chacoca distincta Badcock, 1932: 11, f. 7 (Df).
Latrodectus geometricus Smithers, 1944: 301, f. 6c, 7b, 8d, 17-20 (mf, S).
Latrodectus geometricus modestus Caporiacco, 1949a: 376 (Df).
Latrodectus geometricus subalbicans Caporiacco, 1949a: 376 (Df).
Latrodectus geometricus obscuratus Caporiacco, 1949a: 377 (Df).
Latrodectus geometricus Levi, 1959c: 21, f. 8-10, 25-28, 37, 39-51, 80-83 (mf, S).
Latrodectus geometricus Biasi, 1962: 327, f. 1-2 (f).
Latrodectus geometricus Levi & Levi, 1962: 59, f. 253 (f).
Latrodectus geometricus Abalos & Báez, 1963: 198, f. 1-3, 20-22 (mf).
Latrodectus geometricus Chrysanthus, 1963: 737, f. 53-54, 113 (f).
Latrodectus geometricus Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1965c: 59, f. 10-11 (mf).
Latrodectus geometricus Abalos, 1967: 269, f. 11A-D (mf).
Latrodectus geometricus Abalos & Báez, 1967a: 24, f. 9-10, 15-16 (mf).
Latrodectus geometricus Abalos & Báez, 1967b: 60, f. 4.11-12, 7-8 (mf).
Latrodectus geometricus Levi, 1967c: 185, f. 57-59 (mf).
Latrodectus geometricus Zumpt, 1968: 385, f. 2 (f).
Latrodectus geometricus Abalos, 1980: 49, f. 17, 65-68 (mf, S).
Latrodectus geometricus Levy & Amitai, 1983: 56, f. 42-46 (mf).
Latrodectus geometricus Müller, 1985a: 27, f. 1-3 (f).
Latrodectus geometricus Lotz, 1994a: 11, f. 1a-d, 2a, 2c-d, 8a (mf).
Latrodectus geometricus Lotz, 1994b: 11, f. 1a-d, 2a, 2c-d, 8a (mf).
Latrodectus geometricus Levy, 1998b: 110, f. 203-206 (f).
Latrodectus geometricus Knoflach & van Harten, 2002: 339, f. 2, 20-28 (mf).
Latrodectus geometoricus Yoshida, 2003a: 48, f. 97-102 (mf, lapsus).
Latrodectus geometricus Knoflach & Pfaller, 2004: 138, f. 21a-b (m).
Latrodectus geometricus Agnarsson, 2004: 569, f. 54A-C, F, 55A-H (mf).
Latrodectus geometricus Agnarsson, Coddington & Knoflach, 2007: 345, f. 12 (m).
Latrodectus geometricus Shukla & Broome, 2007: 775, f. 1, 2a-c (f).
Latrodectus geometricus Bayram et al., 2008b: 100, f. 2-3, 4a-d (mf).
Latrodectus geometricus Yoshida, 2009b: 363, f. 74-77 (mf).
Latrodectus geometricus Saaristo, 2010: 276, f. 37.154 (mf).
Latrodectus geometricus Le Peru, 2011: 455, f. 742 (f).
Latrodectus geometricus Simó et al., 2013: 372, f. 1-2 (mf).
Latrodectus geometricus Satam, 2015: 37, f. 1-7 (mf).
Latrodectus geometricus Rozwalka, Dawidowicz & Wawer, 2017: 62, f. 3-4 (f).
Latrodectus hasselti Thorell, 1870 | m f | Southeast Asia to Australia, New Zealand     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007810]
Latrodectus hasseltii Thorell, 1870c: 369 (Dmj).
Latrodectus scelio Thorell, 1870c: 370 (Df).
Latrodectus hasselti L. Koch, 1872a: 276, pl. 23, f. 2-3 (m, Df).
Latrodectus scelio L. Koch, 1872a: 279, pl. 23, f. 4 (f).
Latrodectus scelio indicus Simon, 1897h: 98 (Df).
Latrodectus indicus Pocock, 1900a: 237.
Latrodectus ancorifer Dahl, 1902a: 43 (Df).
Latrodectus hasselti F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902c: 255, pl. 26, f. 4, pl. 27, f. 6.
Latrodectus hasselti indicus F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902c: 255, pl. 27, f. 1.
Latrodectus hasselti ancorifer Kulczyński, 1911c: 443.
Latrodectus hasselti aruensis Strand, 1911d: 136 (Df).
Latrodectus cinctus Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1942: 10 (S, rejected).
Latrodectus hasselti Hickman, 1967: 44, f. 72-76 (mf).
Latrodectus hasseltii Patel, 1973: 150, f. 5-6 (f).
Latrodectus mactans hasselti Chrysanthus, 1975: 38, f. 138-143 (mf).
Latrodectus mactans hasselti Nishikawa, 1976b: 186, f. 5-14 (mf).
Latrodectus hasselti Forster, 1995a: 13, f. 4 (removed mf from S of L. mactans).
Latrodectus hasselti Kim, Cho & Lee, 2003: 83, f. 17-19 (f).
Latrodectus hasselti Yoshida, 2003a: 45, f. 85-90, 555 (mf).
Latrodectus hasselti Snow, Abdel-Mesih & Andrade, 2006: 380, f. 1, 2a-b (mf).
Latrodectus hasseltii Vink et al., 2008: 600, f. 3K-O (mf).
Latrodectus hasselti Yoshida, 2009b: 363, f. 64-68 (mf).
Latrodectus hasselti Eberhard & Huber, 2010: 265, f. 12.14 (f).
Latrodectus hesperus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935 | m f | North America. Introduced to Israel     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007811]
Latrodectus mactans hesperus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935a: 15, f. 1, 4, 6-14, 21, 23-33 (Dmf; omitted by Roewer).
Latrodectus mactans texanus Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935a: 14, f. 3, 15-18 (Dmf; omitted by Roewer).
Latrodectus mactans Levi, 1959c: 28 (S, rejected).
Latrodectus curacaviensis Bhatnagar & Rempel, 1962: 465, f. 1-69 (mf, misidentified).
Latrodectus variolus Levi, 1969: 72 (S, rejected).
Latrodectus hesperus Kaston, 1970: 39, f. 11a-h, 13e, f, h (removed mf from S, S).
Latrodectus hesperus Levy & Amitai, 1983: 53, f. 29-36 (mf).
Latrodectus hesperus Levy, 1998b: 104, f. 190-197 (f).
Latrodectus hystrix Simon, 1890 | m f | Yemen (mainland, Socotra)     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007812]
Latrodectus hystrix Simon, 1890a: 99 (Df).
Latrodectus hystrix F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902c: 252, pl. 26, f. 2.
Latrodectus hystrix Levi, 1959c: 42, f. 13-14, 29-30, 32 (f).
Latrodectus hystrix Knoflach & van Harten, 2002: 346, f. 4, 29-38 (f, Dm).
Latrodectus indistinctus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1904 | m f | Namibia, South Africa     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007813]
Latrodectus indistinctus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1904b: 154, pl. 11, f. 1 (Df).
Latrodectus indistinctus Smithers, 1944: 266, f. 1-9, 12-15, 20f (f, Dm).
Latrodectus indistinctus Lotz, 1994a: 33, f. 5, 7a-c, 8c-g (removed mf from S of L. mactans).
Latrodectus indistinctus Lotz, 1994b: 14, f. 5, 7a-c, 8c-g (mf).
Latrodectus karrooensis Smithers, 1944 | m f | South Africa     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007814]
Latrodectus indistinctus karrooensis Smithers, 1944: 298, f. 16 (Dmf).
Latrodectus mactans Levi, 1959c: 28 (S, rejected).
Latrodectus karrooensis Lotz, 1994a: 39, f. 5, 9a-b, 10a-c (elevated mf from subspecies of L. indistinctus).
Latrodectus karrooensis Lotz, 1994b: 15, f. 5, 9a-b, 10a-c (mf).
Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 | m f | New Zealand     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007815]
Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871: 57, pl. 5, f. a-g (Dmf).
Theridium melanozantha Urquhart, 1887: 102, pl. 8, f. 8 (Dmj).
Theridium zebrinia Urquhart, 1890c: 256 (Df).
Latrodectus katipo atritus Urquhart, 1890c: 259 (Df; omitted by Roewer) [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007801].
Latrodectus katipo F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902c: 255, pl. 27, f. 5.
Latrodectus katipo Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1942: 10 (removed from S of L. hasselti).
Latrodectus hasseltii atritus Parrott, 1948: 162 (recognized as subspecies).
Latrodectus mactans Levi, 1959c: 27 (S, rejected).
Latrodectus atritus Forster, 1995a: 23 (elevated from subspecies).
Latrodectus katipo Forster, 1995a: 22 (removed mf from S of L. mactans).
Latrodectus katipo Vink et al., 2008: 599, f. 3A-J (mf, S).
Latrodectus katipo Paquin, Vink & Dupérré, 2010: 62, f. 34.4-6 (mf).
Latrodectus lilianae Melic, 2000 | m f | Spain, Algeria     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:037048]
Latrodectus lilianae Melic, 2000a: 21, f. 4A, 6C, 7B-C, 8C, F-I, 9B-C, 11-13 (Dmf).
Latrodectus lilianae Le Peru, 2011: 455, f. 743 (f).
Latrodectus lilianae Wunderlich, 2017b: 310, f. 20A, 21 (m).
Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius, 1775) | m f | Probably native to North America only. Introduced to South America, Asia     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007816]
Aranea mactans Fabricius, 1775: 432 (D).
Aranea mactans Fabricius, 1793: 410 (D).
Latrodectus mactans Walckenaer, 1805: 82 (T from Aranea).
Meta schuchii C. L. Koch, 1836a: 10, f. 167 (Df; N.B.: see Schmidt, Piepho & Samm, 2001: 1 for comments on this taxon).
Latrodectus formidabilis Walckenaer, 1837: 647 (Df).
Latrodectus perfidus Walckenaer, 1837: 647 (Df).
Latrodectus mactans Walckenaer, 1837: 648 (Df).
Latrodectus intersector Walckenaer, 1837: 649 (Df).
Latrodectus schuchii C. L. Koch, 1837b: 7, pl. 1, f. 14 (f).
Tetragnatha zorilla Walckenaer, 1841: 221, pl. 19, f. 2 (Dm).
Latrodectus mactans C. L. Koch, 1841a: 115, f. 682 (f).
Theridion verecundum Hentz, 1850: 280, pl. 10, f. 1-2 (Dmf).
Theridion lineatum Hentz, 1850: 281, pl. 10, f. 3 (Dm; preoccupied).
Latrodectus malmignatus tropica Hasselt, 1860: 62, pl. 5, f. 1-6 (Df).
Theridion carolinum Butler, 1877: 75, pl. 13, f. 3 (Df).
Theridion lineamentum McCook, 1879b: 203 (replacement name for Theridion lineatum Hentz).
Latrodectus mactans Keyserling, 1884a: 145, pl. 7, f. 91 (Dm).
Latrodectus mactans McCook, 1889: 274, f. 250-252 (mf).
Lathrodectus mactans Tullgren, 1901a: 6, pl. 1, f. 2 (f).
Latrodectus mactans Emerton, 1902: 123, f. 288, 291 (mf).
Latrodectus mactans F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902a: 378, pl. 35, f. 19-20 (mf).
Latrodectus insularis Dahl, 1902a: 41 (Df).
Latrodectus insularis lunulifer Dahl, 1902a: 41 (Df).
Latrodectus sagittifer Dahl, 1902a: 42 (Df).
Latrodectus hahli Dahl, 1902a: 44 (Df).
Latrodectus luzonicus Dahl, 1902a: 44 (Df).
Latrodectus mactans F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902c: 253, pl. 27, f. 2.
Latrodectus mactans Carbonell, 1923a: 351, f. 2.
Latrodectus mactans Petrunkevitch, 1925a: 103, f. 10 (f).
Latrodectus mactans Brazil & Vellard, 1926: 266, pl. 22, unnumbered fig. (f).
Latrodectus albomaculatus Franganillo, 1930: 11 (Dj).
Latrodectus mactans Petrunkevitch, 1930a: 172, f. 10-13 (mf).
Latrodectus agoyangyang Plantilla & Mabalay, 1935: 188, f. 1 (Dmf) [rather S of L. hasselti].
Latrodectus mactans Franganillo, 1936b: 81, f. 41-42 (m).
Latrodectus mactans albomaculatus Franganillo, 1936b: 81 (Df, reduced to subspecies).
Latrodectus mactans Franganillo, 1936c: 57, f. 24-25 (m).
Latrodectus mactans mexicanus Gonzalez, 1954: 455, f. 1 (Dmf).
Latrodectus mactans Levi, 1959c: 24, f. 1, 5-7, 15, 19-21, 53-67, 72-79 (mf, S).
Latrodectus mactans Carcavallo, 1960: 91, f. 1, 5, 8 (mf).
Latrodectus mactans Wiehle, 1960c: 466, f. 11a-c (mf).
Latrodectus mactans Levi & Levi, 1962: 59, f. 254 (f).
Latrodectus mactans Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1965c: 58, f. 1-7, 9, 12-16 (mf, in part, S).
Latrodectus mactans Wiehle, 1967c: 200, f. 14-16 (mf).
Latrodectus mactans Levi, 1967c: 185, f. 60-62 (mf).
Latrodectus mactans Zumpt, 1968: 385, f. 3 (f).
Latrodectus mactans Kaston, 1970: 37, f. 2, 12, 13a-d, g, i, k (mf).
Latrodectus mactans Bücherl, 1972: 19, f. 10b (f).
Latrodectus mactans Canese, 1972b: 87, f. II, IV (f).
Latrodectus mactans Levi & Randolph, 1975: 39, f. 6-8 (mf).
Latrodectus mactans Abalos, 1980: 31, f. 14-16 (mf).
Latrodectus mactans Roth, 1982: 47-8, f. 6-8 (mf).
Latrodectus mactans Roth, 1985: B43-7, f. 6-8 (mf).
Latrodectus mactans Coddington, 1990: 17, f. 87 (m).
Latrodectus mactans Schmidt & Klaas, 1991: 9, f. 3 (f).
Latrodectus mactans Breene et al., 1993: 57, f. 23A-B, 24A-B (mf).
Latrodectus mactans Roth, 1994: 181, f. 7-8 (mf).
Latrodectus mactans Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 457, f. 276a-f (f).
Latrodectus mactans Kim, 1999b: 23, f. 13-15 (f).
Latrodectus mactans Kim, Cho & Lee, 2003: 83, f. 13-15 (f).
Latrodectus mactans Agnarsson, 2004: 569, f. 54D-E (m).
Latrodectus mactans Jäger, 2009: 35, f. 1-2 (f).
Latrodectus mactans Gómez-Rodríguez & Salazar, 2012: 3, f. I.9A-B (mf).
Latrodectus menavodi Vinson, 1863 | m f | Madagascar, Comoros, Seychelles (Aldabra)     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007817]
Latrodectus menavodi Vinson, 1863: 306, pl. 8, f. 5 (Df).
Latrodectus menavodi F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902c: 255, pl. 27, f. 3.
Latrodectus menavodi Lotz, 1998: 74, f. 1-8 (removed f from S of L. mactans, Dm).
Latrodectus menavodi Saaristo, 2010: 276, f. 37.155 (mf).
Latrodectus mirabilis (Holmberg, 1876) | m f | Argentina     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007818]
Theridium mirabile Holmberg, 1876: 11 (D).
Latrodectus curacaviensis Levi, 1959c: 39, f. 69 (f, S, rejected).
Latrodectus mirabilis Abalos, 1980: 31, f. 1-13, 21 (mf, removed from S of L. mactans).
Latrodectus obscurior Dahl, 1902 | f | Cape Verde Is., Madagascar     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007819]
Latrodectus obscurior Dahl, 1902a: 41 (Df).
Latrodectus obscurior Schmidt, Geisthardt & Piepho, 1994: 92 (removed f from S of L. geometricus, contra Levi, 1959c: 21).
Latrodectus pallidus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872 | m f | Cape Verde Is. to Libya, Central Asia     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007820]
Latrodectus pallidus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872a: 287 (Df).
Latrodectus pallidus F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902c: 253, pl. 26, f. 1.
Latrodectus pallidus pavlovskii Charitonov, 1954: 481, f. 1-2 (Dmf).
Latrodectus pallidus pavlovskii Charitonov, 1955: 244, f. 5 (f).
Latrodectus pallidus Levi, 1959c: 38, f. 22-24, 31, 33-34 (f, S).
Latrodectus pallidus Levi, 1966a: 428, f. 5-7, 17-22 (mf).
Latrodectus pallidus Levy & Amitai, 1983: 47, f. 18-23 (mf).
Latrodectus pallidus pavlovskii Ergashev, 1990: 66, f. 32 (m).
Latrodectus pallidus Lotz, 1994a: 43, f. 11a-e (mf).
Latrodectus pallidus Levy, 1998b: 100, f. 183-188 (f).
Latrodectus pallidus Knoflach & van Harten, 2002: 351, f. 6a-b, pl. 54 (f).
Latrodectus pallidus Kakhki, 2005: 54, f. 3A-E (mf).
Latrodectus pallidus Le Peru, 2011: 456, f. 744 (f).
Latrodectus pallidus Zamani et al., 2014: 60, f. 2C, 3C, 4E (mf).
Latrodectus quartus Abalos, 1980 | m f | Argentina     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007821]
Latrodectus quartus Abalos, 1980: 41, f. 20, 22-23, 38-44 (Dmf).
Latrodectus renivulvatus Dahl, 1902 | m f | Africa, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Iraq     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007822]
Latrodectus renivulvatus Dahl, 1902a: 45 (Df).
Latrodectus incertus Lawrence, 1927: 30, pl. 1, f. 19, pl. 4, f. 78-79 (Df).
Latrodectus mactans Levi, 1959c: 27 (S, rejected).
Latrodectus renivulvatus Lotz, 1994a: 46, f. 5, 12a-c, 13a-c (removed f from S of L. mactans, Dm, S).
Latrodectus renivulvatus Lotz, 1994b: 16, f. 5, 11a-c, 12a-c (mf).
Latrodectus renivulvatus Knoflach & van Harten, 2002: 353, f. 7-8, 39-46 (mf).
Latrodectus renivulvatus Knoflach, 2002b: 169, f. 4b (f).
Latrodectus renivulvatus Knoflach, 2004: 184, f. 24a (f).
Latrodectus hasselti Al-Hadlag & Najim, 2015: 94, f. 1-5, pl. 1-2 (f; misidentified after Zamani & El-Hennawy, 2016: 17).
Latrodectus revivensis Shulov, 1948 | m f | Israel     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007823]
Latrodectus revivensis Shulov, 1948: 209, f. 1-11 (Dmf).
Latrodectus mactans Levi, 1959c: 28 (S, rejected).
Latrodectus revivensis Levi, 1966a: 428, f. 8-11, 23-27 (mf, removed from S of L. mactans).
Latrodectus revivensis Levy & Amitai, 1983: 51, f. 24-28 (mf).
Latrodectus revivensis Levy, 1998b: 97, f. 178-182 (f).
Latrodectus revivensis Berendonck & Greven, 2002: 158, f. 1-19 (mf).
Latrodectus revivensis Berendonck & Greven, 2005: 119, f. 1-15 (f).
Latrodectus rhodesiensis Mackay, 1972 | m f | Southern Africa     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007824]
Latrodectus rhodesiensis Mackay, 1972: 239, f. 1-8 (Dmf).
Latrodectus rhodesiensis Lotz, 1994a: 23, f. 2b-d, 3a-d, 8b (mf).
Latrodectus rhodesiensis Lotz, 1994b: 12, f. 2b-d, 3a-d, 8b (mf).
Latrodectus rhodesiensis Wunderlich, 2008b: 201, f. 46 (m).
Latrodectus thoracicus Nicolet, 1849 | m f | Chile     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:043246]
Latrodectus thoracicus Nicolet, 1849: 462 (Dj).
Latrodectus formidabilis Nicolet, 1849: 460, pl. 4, f. 10 (f, misidentified).
Latrodectus thoracicus Aguilera, D'Elía & Casanueva, 2009: 163, f. 2a-f, 3a-e, 4a-f (removed f from S of L. mactans, Dm).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus (Rossi, 1790) * | m f | Mediterranean to China     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007826]
Aranea brevipes Martini & Goeze, 1778: 286 (D; suppressed for lack of usage, see Bonnet).
Aranea 13-guttata Rossi, 1790: 136, pl. 9, f. 10 (Df).
Latrodectus 13decimguttatus Walckenaer, 1805: 81.
Theridion tredecim-guttatum Latreille, 1806: 98.
Theridion lugubre Dufour, 1820a: 355, pl. 69, f. 1 (Df).
Latrodectus argus Audouin, 1826: 353, pl. 3, f. 10 (Df).
Latrodectus erebus Audouin, 1826: 352, pl. 3, f. 9 (Df).
Meta hispida C. L. Koch, 1836a: 9, f. 166 (Df).
Latrodectus 5-guttatus Krynicki, 1837: 75, pl. 6, f. 1 (Df).
Latrodectus malmignatus Walckenaer, 1837: 642 (Dmf).
Latrodectus martius Walckenaer, 1837: 644 (Dm).
Latrodectus oculatus Walckenaer, 1837: 645 (Df).
Latrodectus venator Walckenaer, 1837: 646 (Df).
Latrodectus 13-guttatus C. L. Koch, 1837a: 39, f. 273 (f).
Latrodectus conglobatus C. L. Koch, 1837a: 41, f. 274 (Df).
Latrodectus hispidus C. L. Koch, 1837b: 7.
Latrodectus argus Lucas, 1838: 35, pl. 6, f. 6 (Dm).
Latrodectus lugubris Motschulsky, 1849: 290, pl. 2, f. 3-4 (Df).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Simon, 1873a: 86.
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus lugubris Thorell, 1875b: 69.
Latrodectus 13-guttatus Thorell, 1875c: 65.
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Simon, 1881a: 177, pl. 26, f. 12 (mf).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Simon, 1894a: 568, f. 491-492, 576 (m).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Dahl, 1902a: 45, f. 1-3 (f).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902c: 254, pl. 26, f. 3.
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Berland, 1932b: 274, f. 415 (m).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Gerhardt, 1944: 16, f. 13 (m).
Latrodectus mactans Levi, 1959c: 24 (S, rejected).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Vintila et al., 1963: 231, f. 1 (f).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Gerschman & Schiapelli, 1965c: 57, f. 17 (f).
Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus Fuhn, 1966: 77, f. 3-4 (mf).
Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus Levi, 1966a: 428, f. 1-4, 12-16 (mf).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Brignoli, 1967e: 184, f. 4 (f).
Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus Tyschchenko & Ergashev, 1974: 934, f. 6-8 (f).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Levy & Amitai, 1983: 46, f. 1-17 (mf, elevated from subspecies of L. mactans).
Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus Brignoli, 1984b: 293, f. 15-16 (f).
Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus Ergashev, 1990: 66, f. 31.6-8 (f).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Schmidt & Klaas, 1991: 9, f. 2 (f).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Lotz, 1994a: 52, f. 14, 15a-d, 16a-c (mf).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Mcheidze, 1997: 180, f. 353-355 (mf).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Zhu, 1998: 293, f. 198A-E (mf).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Levy, 1998b: 90, f. 161-177 (mf).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 123, f. 63J-M (mf).
Latrodectus teredecimguttatus Darvish & Mirshamsi, 1999: 5, f. 4a-c, 6a-d, 7 (mf).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Kim, 1999b: 22, f. 8-12 (mf).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Melic, 2000a: 15, f. 1-2, 4B, 6A-B, 7A, 8A-B, D-E, 9A (mf).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Kim, Cho & Lee, 2003: 82, f. 8-12 (mf).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Trotta, 2005: 175, f. 445-446 (mf).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Kakhki, 2005: 54, f. 2A-E (mf).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Le Peru, 2011: 456, f. 745 (f).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Zamani et al., 2014: 60, f. 2B, 3B, 4C (mf).
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus Anikin & Kuzmin, 2016: 220, f. 1a-b (f).
Latrodectus variegatus Nicolet, 1849 | m f | Chile, Argentina     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007827]
Latrodectus variegatus Nicolet, 1849: 461, pl. 4, f. 9 (Df).
Latrodectus curacaviensis Levi, 1959c: 38 (S, rejected).
Latrodectus variegatus Abalos, 1980: 47, f. 57-64 (mf, removed from S of L. mactans).
Latrodectus variolus Walckenaer, 1837 | m f | USA, Canada     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007828]
Latrodectus variolus Walckenaer, 1837: 648 (Dm).
Latrodectus curacaviensis Levi, 1959c: 38, f. 2-4, 16-18, 35-36, 52, 70-71 (mf, in part).
Latrodectus variolus McCrone & Levi, 1964: 15, f. 3, 8-13 (mf, removed from S of L. mactans).
Latrodectus variolus Kaston, 1970: 38, f. 14a-b, f (mf).
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