Family: Araneidae Clerck,1757 [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spiderfam:0102] Detail
In synonymy:
Parazygiella Wunderlich, 2004 = Zygiella F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902 (Gregorič et al., 2015a: 241)
Gen. Zygiella F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1902 [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidergen:01582] Detail
N.B.: transferred here from the Tetragnathidae by Scharff & Coddington, 1997: 404 (after Coddington, 1990: 17), there by Levi, 1980a; probably polyphyletic (see comments by Levy, 1987: 247).
Transferred to other genera:
Zygiella alpina (Giebel, 1867) -- see Theridion
Zygiella aureola (Keyserling, 1884) -- see Chrysometa
Zygiella baojingensis Yin, 2002 -- see Guizygiella
Zygiella caspica (Simon, 1889) -- see Leviellus
Zygiella decolorata (Keyserling, 1893) -- see Mangora
Zygiella guangxiensis Zhu & Zhang, 1993 -- see Guizygiella
Zygiella guttata (Keyserling, 1880) -- see Chrysometa
Zygiella guyanensis (Keyserling, 1881) -- see Manogea
Zygiella inconveniens (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872) -- see Leviellus
Zygiella indica Tikader & Bal, 1980 -- see Guizygiella
Zygiella kochi (Thorell, 1870) -- see Leviellus
Zygiella melanocephala (Taczanowski, 1873) -- see Mangora
Zygiella melanocrania (Thorell, 1887) -- see Guizygiella
Zygiella nadleri Heimer, 1984 -- see Guizygiella
Zygiella nawazi (Dyal, 1935) -- see Araneus
Zygiella poriensis Levy, 1987 -- see Leviellus
Zygiella punctata (Keyserling, 1893) -- see Metazygia
Zygiella rogenhoferi (Keyserling, 1878) -- see Metazygia
Zygiella salta Yin & Gong, 1996 -- see Guizygiella
Zygiella shivui Patel & Reddy, 1990 -- see Guizygiella
Zygiella sia (Strand, 1906) -- see Yaginumia
Zygiella stroemi (Thorell, 1870) -- see Leviellus
Zygiella thorelli (Ausserer, 1871) -- see Leviellus
In synonymy:
Zygiella biologica (Chamberlin, 1925, T from Pseudometa=Chrysometa) = Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757) (Levi, 1980a: 16).
Zygiella bosenbergi (Keyserling, 1878) = Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757) (Levi, 1974a: 276).
Zygiella californica (Banks, 1896) = Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757) (Gertsch, 1964a: 12).
Zygiella calophylla (Walckenaer, 1802) = Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757) (Levi, 1974a: 271).
Zygiella canariensis Schmidt, 1977 = Zygiella minima Schmidt, 1968 (Wunderlich, 1987a: 135).
Zygiella gigans (Franganillo, 1913, T from Enoplognatha) = Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757) (Méndez, 1998: 145, confirmed by Breitling et al., 2016b: 57).
Zygiella litterata (Olivier, 1789) = Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757) (Clerckian names validated by ICZN Direction 104).
Zygiella maulliniana (Mello-Leitão, 1951, T from Larinia) = Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757) (Levi, 1974a: 276).
Zygiella x-notata chelata (Franganillo, 1909) = Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757) (Breitling et al., 2016b: 56).
Zygiella x-notata percechelata (Franganillo, 1909) = Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757) (Breitling et al., 2016b: 56).
Nomen dubium:
Zygiella crucinotata (Pokrowsky, 1904: 300, f, Russia, originally in Zilla, mistakenly listed under Aranea by Roewer) -- Levi, 1974a: 271.
Zygiella atrica (C. L. Koch, 1845) * | m f | Europe to East Russia (Sachalin), Japan. Introduced to USA, Canada     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017166]
Eucharia atrica C. L. Koch, 1845: 103, f. 1030-1031 (Dmf).
Epeira atrica Westring, 1851: 35.
Zilla atrica Thorell, 1856: 107.
Zygia atrica Menge, 1866: 78, pl. 12, f. 20 (mf).
Zilla atrica Thorell, 1870a: 31.
Zilla atrica Chyzer & Kulczyński, 1891: 137, pl. 5, f. 34 (mf).
Zilla atrica F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892: 395, pl. 20, f. 3, pl. 21, f. 9 (mf).
Zilla atrica McCook, 1894: 238, pl. 18, f. 7-8 (mf).
Zilla atrica Simon, 1895a: 814, f. 866 (m).
Zilla atrica Becker, 1896: 51, pl. 10, f. 5 (mf).
Zilla atrica Bösenberg, 1901: 46, pl. 3, f. 36 (mf).
Zilla atrica Emerton, 1902: 185, f. 431-434 (m).
Zilla atrica Emerton, 1909: 201, pl. 5, f. 4 (m).
Araneus atricus Lessert, 1910b: 339.
Zygiella atrica Simon, 1929: 661, 665, 753, f. 1017, 1027 (mf).
Aranea atrica Reimoser, 1929c: 86, f. 5 (mf).
Zilla atrica Wiehle, 1931: 33, f. 38-40 (mf).
Zilla atrica Comstock, 1940: 473, f. 471a, 472a (mf).
Zilla atrica Drensky, 1943: 228, f. 9 (mf).
Zygiella atrica Kaston, 1948: 243, f. 748-749, 770 (mf, removed from S of Z. calophylla).
Zygiella atrica Locket & Millidge, 1953: 163, f. 108D, 109A (mf).
Zilla atrica Saito, 1959: 109, f. 127a-b (f).
Zygiella atrica Gertsch, 1964a: 16, f. 18-20 (mf).
Zygiella atrica Tyschchenko, 1971: 191, f. 555 (f).
Zygiella atrica Miller, 1971: 204, pl. XXXVII, f. 14 (f).
Zygiella atrica Levi, 1974a: 272, f. 1-8 (mf).
Zygiella atrica Palmgren, 1974a: 12, f. 5d-f (mf).
Zygiella atrica Roberts, 1985: 220, f. 99d (mf).
Zygiella atrica Coddington, 1990: 17, f. 67 (m).
Zygiella atrica Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 64, f. 142 (mf).
Zygiella atrica Roberts, 1995: 334, f. (mf).
Zygiella atrica Roberts, 1998: 347, f. (mf).
Zygiella atrica Paquin & Dupérré, 2003: 49, f. 347-349 (mf).
Zygiella atrica Dondale et al., 2003: 298, f. 698-703 (mf).
Zygiella atrica Wunderlich, 2004f: 948, f. 37 (m).
Zygiella atrica Almquist, 2005: 179, f. 184a-g (mf).
Zygiella calyptrata (Workman & Workman, 1894) | f | China, Myanmar, Malaysia     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017167]
Epeira calyptrata Workman & Workman, 1894: 21, pl. 21 (f).
Epeira calyptrata Thorell, 1895: 188 (Df).
Zygiella calyptrata Roewer, 1942a: 886.
Zygiella calyptrata Levi, 1974a: 282, f. 76-80 (f).
Zygiella calyptrata Yin et al., 1990: 138, f. 341-343 (f, misidentified).
Zygiella calyptrata Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 229, f. 129O-P (f).
Zygiella carpenteri Archer, 1951 | m f | USA     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017168]
Zygiella carpenteri Archer, 1951a: 18, f. 34 (Df).
Zygiella carpenteri Gertsch, 1964a: 9, f. 11-14 (f, Dm).
Zygiella carpenteri Levi, 1974a: 280, f. 62-69 (mf).
Parazygiella carpenteri Wunderlich, 2004f: 928 (Tmf from Zygiella).
Zygiella carpenteri Gregorič et al., 2015a: 241 (T from Parazygiella).
Zygiella dispar (Kulczyński, 1885) | m f | North America, Russia (Far East), Japan     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017170]
Zilla dispar Kulczyński, 1885: 24, pl. 9, f. 7 (Dmf).
Aranea dispar Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 238.
Zilla montana Comstock, 1940: 474, f. 471c, 472c (mf, misidentified).
Zygiella montana Levi & Field, 1954: 452, f. 36-37 (mf, misidentified).
Zygiella dispar Gertsch, 1964a: 7, f. 7-10 (mf).
Zygiella dispar Levi, 1974a: 278, f. 33-37, 44, 48 only (mf, S, rejected).
Zygiella montana Chikuni, 1989b: 77, f. 44 (mf, misidentified).
Zygiella dispar Levi, 2002: 541, f. 106-107 (f).
Zygiella dispar Tanikawa, 2002: 105, f. 1-6 (mf).
Zygiella dispar Dondale et al., 2003: 303, f. 711-718 (mf).
Parazygiella dispar Wunderlich, 2004f: 928 (Tmf from Zygiella).
Parazygiella disper Tanikawa, 2007c: 55, f. 83-85, 483-484 (mf, lapsus).
Parazygiella dispar Tanikawa, 2009: 433, f. 65-66 (mf).
Parazygiella dispar Marusik & Kovblyuk, 2011: 269, f. 41.1-8 (mf).
Zygiella dispar Gregorič et al., 2015a: 241 (T from Parazygiella).
Zygiella dispar Tanikawa, 2017a: 1, f. 1E-F, 2D-F (mf).
Zygiella hiramatsui Tanikawa, 2017 | m f | Japan     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:049604]
Zygiella hiramatsui Tanikawa, 2017a: 1, f. 1A-D, 2A-C (Dmf).
Zygiella keyserlingi (Ausserer, 1871) | m f | Southern Europe, Ukraine, Turkey     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017174]
Zilla keyserlingii Ausserer, 1871b: 830, pl. 5, f. 11 (Df).
Zilla atrica Chyzer & Kulczyński, 1891: 137, pl. 5, f. 34 (mf, in part).
Zilla keyserlingi Chyzer & Kulczyński, 1897: 307 (Dm).
Zygiella keyserlingi Simon, 1929: 661.
Zilla keyserlingi Wiehle, 1931: 35, f. 41-42 (mf).
Zygiella keyserlingi Levi, 1974a: 274, f. 9-14 (mf).
Zygiella keyserlingi Kovblyuk et al., 2008b: 9, f. 2-5, 29-30 (f).
Zygiella keyserlingi Gökalp & Kaya, 2017: 131, f. 2-11 (mf).
Zygiella kirgisica Bakhvalov, 1974 | f | Kyrgyzstan     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017175]
Zygiella kirgisicus Bakhvalov, 1974: 108, f. 15-17 (Df).
Zygiella kirgisica Bakhvalov, 1982: 138, f. 2 (f).
Zygiella kirgisica Bakhvalov, 1983: 87, f. 2 (f).
Zygiella minima Schmidt, 1968 | m f | Canary Is., Madeira     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017178]
Zygiella minima minima Schmidt, 1968: 414, f. 11 (Dm).
Zygiella minima Levi, 1974a: 274, f. 15-20 (m, Df, elevated to species).
Zygiella canariensis Schmidt, 1977: 62, f. 9-11 (Dmf).
Zygiella minima Wunderlich, 1987a: 135 (S).
Zygiella montana (C. L. Koch, 1834) * | m f | Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Uzbekistan     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017179]
Zilla montana C. L. Koch, 1834: 125, pl. 19 (Df).
Zilla montana C. L. Koch, 1839a: 146, f. 536-537 (Dmf).
Epeira montana Westring, 1851: 35.
Zilla alpina L. Koch, 1870: 16 (Dmf).
Zilla montana Emerton, 1884: 323, pl. 34, f. 14, pl. 37, f. 22-23, 26, 28 (mf).
Zilla montana Kulczyński, 1885: 25, pl. 9, f. 8 (m).
Zilla montana Chyzer & Kulczyński, 1891: 137, pl. 5, f. 33 (f).
Zilla montana McCook, 1894: 239, pl. 18, f. 3-4 (mf).
Zilla montana Bösenberg, 1901: 44, pl. 3, f. 33 (mf).
Zilla montana Emerton, 1902: 185, f. 435a (m).
Zilla montana Emerton, 1909: 201, pl. 5, f. 4b (f).
Araneus montanus Lessert, 1910b: 341.
Zygiella montana Simon, 1929: 663, 754, f. 1020, 1026 (mf).
Zilla montana Wiehle, 1931: 38, f. 46-48 (mf).
Zilla montana Drensky, 1943: 227, f. 8 (mf).
Zygiella montana Miller, 1971: 202, pl. XXXVII, f. 10-11 (mf).
Zygiella montana Levi, 1974a: 278, f. 51-56, 59-61 (mf).
Zygiella montana Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 64, f. 141 (mf).
Zygiella montana Roberts, 1995: 335, f. (mf).
Zygiella montana Roberts, 1998: 347, f. (mf).
Parazygiella montana Wunderlich, 2004f: 936 (Tmf from Zygiella).
Parazygiella montana Topçu et al., 2006a: 336, f. 2 (f).
Zygiella montana Gregorič et al., 2015a: 241 (T from Parazygiella).
Zygiella nearctica Gertsch, 1964 | m f | Canada, USA     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:039205]
Zygiella nearctica Gertsch, 1964a: 4, f. 3-6 (Dmf).
Zygiella dispar Levi, 1974a: 278, f. 32, 38-43, 45-47 (mf, misidentified).
Zygiella nearctica Paquin & Dupérré, 2003: 49, f. 350-352 (mf).
Zygiella nearctica Dondale et al., 2003: 303, f. 711-718 (mf, removed from S).
Zygiella pulcherrima (Zawadsky, 1902) | ? | Russia     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017182]
Zilla pulcherrima Zawadsky, 1902: 5 (D).
Zygiella pulcherrima Roewer, 1942a: 884.
Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757) | m f | Europe, Turkey, Caucasus. Introduced to North America, Chile, Uruguay, Argentina, China, Japan, Réunion     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017187]
Araneus x-notatus Clerck, 1757: 46, pl. 2, f. 5 (Df).
Aranea litterata Olivier, 1789: 206 (D).
Aranea calophylla Walckenaer, 1802: 200 (Dmf).
Epeira calophylla Sundevall, 1833a: 252.
Zilla calophylla C. L. Koch, 1839a: 148, f. 538-539 (mf).
Epeira similis Blackwall, 1844: 186 (Dmf).
Zilla x-notata Thorell, 1856: 26 (D).
Epeira similis Blackwall, 1864a: 337, pl. 25, f. 244.
Epeira calophylla Blackwall, 1864a: 338, pl. 25, f. 245 (mf).
Zilla calophylla Menge, 1866: 76, pl. 12, f. 19 (Dmf).
Zygia calophylla Ohlert, 1867: 30.
Zilla bösenbergi Keyserling, 1878a: 575, pl. 14, f. 4-5 (Dmf).
Zilla x-notata Hansen, 1882: 23, pl. 1, f. 39 (mf).
Zilla x-notata Emerton, 1884: 324, pl. 11, f. 2, pl. 34, f. 13, pl. 37, f. 24-25, 27 (mf).
Zilla x-notata Chyzer & Kulczyński, 1891: 137, pl. 5, f. 35 (mf).
Zilla x-notata F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1892: 395, pl. 21, f. 8 (mf).
Zilla boesenbergi Keyserling, 1893: 297, pl. 15, f. 220 (mf).
Zilla x-notata McCook, 1894: 237, pl. 18, f. 1-2 (mf).
Zilla x-notata Becker, 1896: 53, pl. 11, f. 1 (mf).
Zilla californica Banks, 1896b: 90 (Df).
Zilla x-notata Bösenberg, 1901: 45, pl. 3, f. 35 (mf).
Zilla x-notata Emerton, 1902: 185, f. 435 (m).
Zilla x-notata chelata Franganillo, 1909: 189 (Dmf).
Zilla x-notata percechelata Franganillo, 1909: 189 (Dm).
Zilla x-notata Engelhardt, 1910: 42, f. 4 (f).
Zilla x-notata chelata Franganillo, 1910: 17, f. 7 (mf).
Zilla x-notata percechelata Franganillo, 1910: 17 (m).
Araneus x-notatus Lessert, 1910b: 340.
Araneus californicus Petrunkevitch, 1911: 283.
Araneus boesenbergi Petrunkevitch, 1911: 283.
Zilla gigans Franganillo, 1913: 128 (Df).
Pseudometa biologica Chamberlin, 1925d: 217 (Df).
Zygiella x-notata Simon, 1929: 663, 665, 754, f. 1018, 1028 (mf).
Zilla litterata Wiehle, 1931: 30, f. 33-37 (mf).
Zilla x-notata Comstock, 1940: 474, f. 471b, 472b (mf).
Zygiella boesenbergi Roewer, 1942a: 887.
Zygiella californica Roewer, 1942a: 887.
Zilla litterata Drensky, 1943: 228, f. 10 (mf).
Zygiella litterata Kaston, 1948: 243, f. 747, 767-769 (mf).
Zygiella x-notata Chrysanthus, 1949b: 350, f. 1 (f).
Larinia maulliniana Mello-Leitão, 1951: 331, f. 5-6 (Dm).
Zygiella x-notata Locket & Millidge, 1953: 159, f. 108A, C, 109B (mf).
Zygiella x-notata Gertsch, 1964a: 12, f. 15-17 (mf, S).
Zygiella x-notata Mackie, 1967: 439, f. 1-2, 4-5 (mf).
Zygiella x-notata Tyschchenko, 1971: 191, f. 557 (f).
Zygiella x-notata Miller, 1971: 204, pl. XXXVII, f. 15 (f).
Zygiella x-notata Loksa, 1972: 107, f. 97D-F (mf).
Enoplognatha gigans Levi, 1974a: 271 (Tf from Zilla, nomen dubium, but see Bosmans & Van Keer, 1999: 211).
Zygiella x-notata Levi, 1974a: 276, f. 21-31, 57-58 (mf, S).
Zygiella x-notata Levi, 1980a: 16 (S).
Zygiella x-notata Roberts, 1985: 220, f. 99c (mf).
Zygiella x-notata Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 66, f. 143 (mf).
Zygiella x-notata Roberts, 1995: 334, f. (mf).
Zygiella x-notata Hormiga, Eberhard & Coddington, 1995: 323, f. 5C-D (m).
Zygiella x-notata Agnarsson, 1996: 66, f. 54A-C (mf).
Zygiella x-notata Bellmann, 1997: 100, f. (f).
Zygiella x-notata Roberts, 1998: 346, f. (mf).
Zygiella x-notata Méndez, 1998: 145 (S).
Zygiella x-notata Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 229, f. 130D-E (m).
Zygiella x-notata Levi, 2001: 473, f. 124-131 (mf).
Zygiella x-notata Levi, 2002: 545, f. 171-174, 215 (mf).
Zygiella x-notata Dondale et al., 2003: 300, f. 704-710 (mf).
Zygiella x-notata Tanikawa, 2004c: 61, f. 1-4 (mf).
Zygiella x-notata Almquist, 2005: 181, f. 186a-f (mf).
Zygiella x-notata Tanikawa, 2007c: 55, f. 81-82, 481-482 (mf).
Zygiella x-notata Türkes & Mergen, 2008: 300, f. 4 (f).
Zygiella x-notata Álvarez-Padilla & Hormiga, 2011: 852, f. 139F (m).
Zygiella x-notata Breitling et al., 2016b: 56 (S of Zygiella x-notata chelata and Zygiella x-notata parcechelata).
Zygiella x-notata Breitling et al., 2016b: 57 (S of Zygiella gigans confirmed).
Zygiella x-notata Cazanove, 2017: 23, 2-4 (f).
up