Family: Miturgidae Simon,1886 [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spiderfam:0104] Detail
Gen. Zora C. L. Koch, 1847 [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidergen:02511] Detail
N.B.: transferred from the Ctenidae to the Zoridae by Lehtinen, 1967: 276.
Transferred to other genera:
Zora affinis Drensky, 1936 -- see Clubiona
Zora inornata L. Koch, 1882 -- see Liocranum
In synonymy:
Zora jaffana Strand, 1915 = Zora manicata Simon, 1878 (Levy, 2003: 15).
Zora nigrimana Schenkel, 1927 = Zora alpina Kulczyński, 1915 (Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 454).
Nomen dubium:
Zora maculosa Roewer, 1951: 447 (replacement name for Hecaerge maculata O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872a: 257, preoccupied by Blackwall, 1832, j, Lebanon, Israel) -- Levy, 2003: 13.
Zora acuminata Zhu & Zhang, 2006 | m f | China     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:040161]
Zora acuminata Zhu & Zhang, 2006: 48, f. 1-8 (Dmf).
Zora alpina Kulczyński, 1915 | m f | Switzerland, Italy     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:028545]
Zora alpina Kulczyński, 1915: 935 (Df).
Zora nigrimana Schenkel, 1927b: 255, f. 15 (Df).
Zora alpina Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 454, f. 1194 (f, S).
Zora alpina Mazzoleni et al., 2016: 446, f. 1-6, 9, 12-13 (Dm, f).
Zora armillata Simon, 1878 | m f | Europe, Russia     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:028546]
Zora armillata Simon, 1878a: 320 (Dm).
Zora letifera Falconer, 1912: 317, f. 1-4 (Dm).
Zora armillata Simon, 1932: 933, 968, f. 1324 (m).
Zora armillata Tullgren, 1946: 72, pl. 12, f. 146-148 (m, Df).
Zora armillata Millidge & Locket, 1955: 163, f. 1C, 2D (mf).
Zora armillata Locket, Millidge & Merrett, 1974: 20, f. 9D, 10D (mf).
Zora armillata Roberts, 1985: 94, f. 37b (mf).
Zora armillata Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 456, f. 1200 (mf).
Zora armillata Roberts, 1995: 145, f. (mf).
Zora armillata Roberts, 1998: 154, f. (mf).
Zora armillata Urones, 2005: 10, f. 2-4 (f).
Zora armillata Almquist, 2006: 443, f. 383a-e (mf).
Zora armillata Aakra et al., 2016: 37, f. 32A,C,E,G (mf).
Zora distincta Kulczyński, 1915 | m f | Eastern Europe     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:028547]
Zora distincta Kulczyński, 1915: 937 (Dmf).
Zora distincta Miller, 1947: 89, pl. XIII, f. 14-15 (m).
Zora distincta Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 456, f. 1197 (mf).
Zora hespera Corey & Mott, 1991 | m f | USA, Canada     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:028548]
Zora hespera Corey & Mott, 1991: 60, f. 8-14 (Dmf).
Zora hespera Bennett & Brumwell, 1996: 106, f. 1-4 (mf).
Zora huseynovi Zamani & Marusik, 2017 | m | Iran     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:049742]
Zora huseynovi Zamani & Marusik, 2017: 325, f. 6a-c (Dm).
Zora lyriformis Song, Zhu & Gao, 1993 | m f | China     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:028551]
Zora lyriformis Song, Zhu & Gao, 1993: 87, f. 1-6 (Dmf).
Zora lyriformis Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 465, f. 267K, O (mf).
Zora lyriformis Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 367, f. 240A-F (mf).
Zora lyriformis Zhu & Zhang, 2011: 413, f. 295A-D (mf).
Zora manicata Simon, 1878 | m f | Europe, Israel, Iran     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:028553]
Zora manicata Simon, 1878a: 318 (Dmf).
Zora jaffana Strand, 1915c: 160 (Dm).
Zora manicata Miller, 1947: 88, pl. XIV, f. 13-16 (mf).
Zora manicata Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 1192 (mf).
Zora manicata Levy, 2003: 15, f. 23-31 (mf, S).
Zora manicata Urones, 2005: 11, f. 1, 5-15 (mf).
Zora manicata Mazzoleni et al., 2016: 446, f. 7, 10 (m).
Zora nemoralis (Blackwall, 1861) | m f | Europe, Caucasus, Russia to Turkmenistan, China, Korea, Japan     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:028554]
Hecaerge nemoralis Blackwall, 1861b: 441 (Dmf).
Hecaerge nemoralis O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1873b: 433, pl. 33, f. 1 (m).
Zora nemoralis Menge, 1875: 401, pl. 68, f. 227 (mf).
Zora nemoralis Becker, 1896: 308, pl. 17, f. 17 (mf).
Zora nemoralis Bösenberg, 1902: 254, pl. 23, f. 367 (mf).
Zora nemoralis Dahl & Dahl, 1927: 5, f. 1-2 (mf).
Zora nemoralis Simon, 1932: 932, 934, 968, f. 1421-1422, 1426 (mf).
Zora nemoralis Holm, 1945b: 68, f. 22a-b (mf).
Zora nemoralis Tullgren, 1946: 73, f. 22B, pl. 12, f. 149-151 (mf).
Zora nemoralis Miller, 1947: 88, pl. XIV, f. 5-8 (mf).
Zora nemoralis Locket & Millidge, 1951: 159, f. 80A, H (mf).
Zora nemoralis Millidge & Locket, 1955: 163, f. 1E-F, 2B, F (mf).
Zora nemoralis Braendegaard, 1966: 209, f. 176-177 (mf).
Zora nemoralis Locket, Millidge & Merrett, 1974: 20, f. 9F-G, 10E (mf).
Zora nemoralis Paik, 1978e: 406, f. 183.1-4 (mf).
Zora nemoralis Roberts, 1985: 94, f. 37c (mf).
Zora nemoralis Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 456, f. 1198 (mf).
Zora nemoralis Song, Zhu & Gao, 1993: 89, f. 10-13 (m).
Zora nemoralis Roberts, 1995: 145, f. (mf).
Zora nemoralis Roberts, 1998: 154, f. (mf).
Zora nemoralis Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 465, f. 267P-Q (m).
Zora nemoralis Namkung, 2002: 493, f. 38.1a-b (mf).
Zora nemoralis Namkung, 2003: 496, f. 38.1a-b (mf).
Zora nemoralis Lee et al., 2004: 99, unnumbered f. (f).
Zora nemoralis Urones, 2005: 13, f. 16-21 (m).
Zora nemoralis Almquist, 2006: 444, f. 383a-e (mf).
Zora nemoralis Ono, 2009a: 469, f. 5-7 (mf).
Zora opiniosa (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872) | f | Lebanon     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:028556]
Hecaerge opiniosa O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872a: 258, pl. 16, f. 43 (Df; N.B.: misplaced, per Levy, 2003: 12).
Zora palmgreni Holm, 1945 | m f | Sweden     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:028555]
Zora nemoralis palmgreni Holm, 1945b: 68, f. 22c-d (Dmf).
Zora nemoralis palmgreni Almquist, 2006: 445, f. 384a-e (mf).
Zora palmgreni Wunderlich, 2008h: 768 (elevated to species).
Zora parallela Simon, 1878 | m f | Europe, Russia     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:028557]
Zora parallela Simon, 1878a: 323, pl. 16, f. 9 (Dmf).
Zora parallela Tullgren, 1946: 75, pl. 12, f. 152 (f).
Zora parallela Denis, 1966g: 180, f. 1-4 (mf).
Zora parallela Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 454, f. 1196 (mf).
Zora parallela Pozzi & Hänggi, 1998: 38, f. 16-18 (mf).
Zora parallela Roberts, 1998: 155, f. (mf).
Zora parallela Urones, 2005: 13, f. 22-28 (m).
Zora parallela Almquist, 2006: 445, f. 385a-e (mf).
Zora parallela Crespo, 2008: 406, f. 7A-B (m).
Zora parallela Zamani & Marusik, 2017: 325, f. 6d-g (m).
Zora pardalis Simon, 1878 | m f | Europe to Kazakhstan     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:028558]
Zora pardalis Simon, 1878a: 322 (Dmf).
Zora pardalis Bösenberg, 1902: 254, pl. 24, f. 368 (mf).
Zora pardalis Denis, 1934a: 584, f. 4 (m).
Zora pardalis Miller, 1947: 89, pl. XIV, f. 17 (m).
Zora pardalis Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 454, f. 1195 (f).
Zora pardalis Roberts, 1998: 155, f. (mf).
Zora pardalis Urones, 2005: 14, f. 29-35 (mf).
Zora prespaensis Drensky, 1929 | f | Macedonia     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:028559]
Zora prespaensis Drensky, 1929: 19, 65, pl. 2, f. 1-2 (Df).
Zora prespaensis Deltshev, 2003: 147, f. 30-32 (f).
Zora pumila (Hentz, 1850) | m f | USA     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:028560]
Katadysas pumilus Hentz, 1850: 287, pl. 10, f. 16 (Df).
Zora pumila Simon, 1897a: 135.
Zora spinimana Emerton, 1911: 403, pl. 5, f. 5 (f, misidentified).
Zora pumila Comstock, 1912: 573, f. 651.
Zora pumila Kaston, 1948: 385, f. 1379-1382 (f, Dm).
Zora pumila Corey & Mott, 1991: 57, f. 1-7 (mf).
Zora silvestris Kulczyński, 1897 | m f | Europe to Central Asia     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:028561]
Zora silvestris Kulczyński, in Chyzer & Kulczyński, 1897: 250, pl. 10, f. 13 (Dmf).
Zora silvestris Palmgren, 1943: 76, f.
Zora silvestris Tullgren, 1946: 76, f. 22C, pl. 12, f. 153 (f).
Zora silvestris Miller, 1947: 88, pl. XIV, f. 9-12 (mf).
Zora silvestris Millidge & Locket, 1955: 161, f. 1A-B, 2A, G (mf).
Zora silvestris Cooke, 1963: 155, f. 1, 9 (mf).
Zora silvestris Braendegaard, 1966: 211, f. 178 (f).
Zora silvestris Locket, Millidge & Merrett, 1974: 17, f. 9B-C, 10A-B (mf).
Zora silvestris Thaler, 1982c: 403, f. 18-22 (mf).
Zora silvestris Roberts, 1985: 94, f. 37d (mf).
Zora silvestris Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 454, f. 1193 (mf).
Zora silvestris Roberts, 1995: 146, f. (mf).
Zora silvestris Roberts, 1998: 154, f. (mf).
Zora silvestris Almquist, 2006: 446, f. 386a-g (mf).
Zora silvestris Mazzoleni et al., 2016: 446, f. 8, 11 (m).
Zora spinimana (Sundevall, 1833) * | m f | Europe, Turkey, Caucasus, Russia to Central Asia, China, Japan     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:028562]
Hecaerge maculata Blackwall, 1833: 193 (Dmf).
Lycaena spinimana Sundevall, 1833a: 266 (Df).
Lycodia spinimana Sundevall, 1833b: 22.
Hecaerge maculata Blackwall, 1834b: 413, pl. 3, f. 8 (mf).
Dolomedes spinimanus C. L. Koch, 1835: 128, pl. 23-24.
Dolomedes lycaena Walckenaer, 1837: 348 (Dmf).
Zora spinimana C. L. Koch, 1847: 102, f. 1343-1344 (f, Dm).
Psilothra spinimana Gistel, 1848: 9 (replacement name for Hecaerge, preoccupied).
Hecaerge spinimana Blackwall, 1861a: 41, pl. 3, f. 21 (mf).
Zora lycaena Thorell, 1870b: 140.
Zora maculata Menge, 1875: 400, pl. 68, f. 226 (mf).
Zora maculata Hansen, 1882: 51, pl. 3, f. 10 (mf).
Zora spinimana Becker, 1896: 306, pl. 17, f. 15 (mf).
Zora spinimana Simon, 1897a: 135, f. 134-140 (mf).
Zora maculata Bösenberg, 1902: 254, pl. 23, f. 366 (mf).
Zora spinimana Dahl & Dahl, 1927: 5, f. 3-5 (mf).
Zora spinimana Simon, 1932: 933, 968, f. 1423, 1425 (mf).
Zora spinimana Palmgren, 1943: 73, f.
Zora spinimana Tullgren, 1946: 71, f. 21, 22A, pl. 11, f. 142-145 (mf).
Zora spinimana Miller, 1947: 87, pl. XIV, f. 1-4 (mf).
Zora spinimana Locket & Millidge, 1951: 156, f. 4B, 79C, 80B, D, F (mf).
Zora spinimana Millidge & Locket, 1955: 163, f. 1D, 2C, E (mf).
Zora spinimana Braendegaard, 1966: 207, f. 173-175 (mf).
Zora spinimana Yaginuma, 1973c: 250, f. 1 (m).
Zora spinimana Locket, Millidge & Merrett, 1974: 20, f. 9E, 10C (mf).
Zora spinimana Roberts, 1985: 94, f. 37a (mf).
Zora spinimana Barrientos & Urones, 1985: 356, f. 3c-d (m).
Zora spinimana Yaginuma, 1986a: 195, f. 109.2 (m).
Zora spinimana Hu & Wu, 1989: 308, f. 247.1-2 (m).
Zora spinimana Izmailova, 1989: 46, f. 34 (f).
Zora spinimana Chikuni, 1989b: 132, f. 1 (m).
Zora spinimana Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 456, f. 1199 (mf).
Zora spinimana Song, Zhu & Gao, 1993: 88, f. 7-9 (f).
Zora spinimana Roberts, 1995: 144, f. (mf).
Zora spinimana Roberts, 1998: 153, f. (mf).
Zora spinimana Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 466, f. 267L (f).
Zora spinimana Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 368, f. 241A-C (f).
Zora spinimana Urones, 2005: 16, f. 36-45 (mf).
Zora spinimana Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman, 2006: 270, f. 112a-e (mf).
Zora spinimana Almquist, 2006: 447, f. 387a-i (mf).
Zora spinimana Ono, 2009a: 469, f. 1-4 (mf).
Zora spinimana Bayram et al., 2009b: 145, f. 2A-B, 3-4 (mf).
Zora spinimana Marusik & Kovblyuk, 2011: 265, f. 40.2, 4-8 (mf).
Zora spinimana Ramírez, 2014: 212, f. 140B, 146D, 175D (mf).
Zora spinimana Aakra et al., 2016: 38, f. 32B,D,F,H (mf).
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