Family: Araneidae Clerck,1757 [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spiderfam:0102] Detail
Gen. Singa C. L. Koch, 1836 [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidergen:01559] Detail
Transferred to other genera:
Singa abbreviata Keyserling, 1879 -- see Bertrana
Singa aenea Kroneberg, 1875 -- see Hypsosinga
Singa affinis O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1876 -- see Hypsosinga
Singa albovittata Westring, 1851 -- see Hypsosinga
Singa atra Kulczyński, 1885 -- see Hypsosinga
Singa attica Simon, 1884 -- see Hypsosinga
Singa bengryi Archer, 1958 -- see Metepeira
Singa calix (Walckenaer, 1841) -- see Metazygia
Singa crewi Banks, 1903 -- see Metazygia
Singa cubana Banks, 1909 -- see Hypsosinga
Singa dotana Banks, 1914 -- see Exalbidion
Singa duodecimguttata Keyserling, 1879 -- see Spilasma
Singa erythrothorax Taczanowski, 1873 -- see Alpaida
Singa essequibensis (Hingston, 1932) -- see Eustala
Singa flava O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1894 -- see Araneus
Singa floridana Banks, 1896 -- see Araneus
Singa gracilenta (Roewer, 1942) -- see Argiope
Singa groenlandica (Simon, 1889) -- see Hypsosinga
Singa hentzi Banks, 1907 -- see Hypsosinga
Singa heri (Hahn, 1831) -- see Hypsosinga
Singa leucogramma (White, 1841) -- see Alpaida
Singa linyphiformis (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) -- see Hypsosinga
Singa longicauda Taczanowski, 1878 -- see Cyclosa
Singa marmorata Taczanowski, 1873 -- see Alpaida
Singa maura (Hentz, 1847) -- see Metazygia
Singa melania Chamberlin & Ivie, 1947 -- see Hypsosinga
Singa modesta Banks, 1896 -- see Hypsosinga
Singa mollybyrnae McCook, 1894 -- see Metazygia
Singa nigripes Keyserling, 1884 -- see Hypsosinga
Singa nigrofasciata L. Koch, 1881 -- see Hypsosinga
Singa niveosigillata Mello-Leitão, 1941 -- see Alpaida
Singa orotes Archer, 1951 -- see Hypsosinga
Singa phragmiteti Nemenz, 1956 -- see Larinia
Singa pratensis Emerton, 1884 -- see Araneus
Singa pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831) -- see Hypsosinga
Singa quadripunctata Kishida, 1931 -- see Hypsosinga
Singa rubens (Hentz, 1847) -- see Hypsosinga
Singa sanguinea C. L. Koch, 1844 -- see Hypsosinga
Singa scabristernis Kulczyński, 1887 -- see Hypsosinga
Singa singaeformis (Scheffer, 1904) -- see Hypsosinga
Singa theridiformis (Bösenberg & Strand, 1906) -- see Hypsosinga
Singa trapezoides (Karsch, 1879) -- see Eriophora
Singa truncata Banks, 1901 -- see Hypsosinga
Singa vanbruyseli Becker, 1879 -- see Cyclosa
Singa variabilis Emerton, 1884 -- see Hypsosinga
In synonymy:
Singa campestris Emerton, 1915 = Singa keyserlingi McCook, 1894 (Levi, 1972a: 232).
Singa decora (Simon, 1891) = Singa neta (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872) (Levy, 1984: 124).
Singa hamata (Olivier, 1789) = Singa hamata (Clerck, 1757) (Clerckian names validated by ICZN Direction 104).
Singa pollocki (Denis, 1956, T from Lithyphantes=Steatoda) = Singa neta (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872) (Levy, 1984: 124).
Singa septemguttata (Simon, 1873, T from Steatoda) = Singa neta (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872) (Levy, 1984: 124).
Nomina dubia:
Singa hamata melanocephala C. L. Koch, 1836a: 44, f. 199 (m, Italy) [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017048] -- Breitling et al., 2016b: 72.
Singa moesta Banks, 1898b: 256, pl. 15, f. 3 (f, Mexico, renamed as Araneus metuens by Petrunkevitch, 1911: 302) -- Levi, 1972a: 231.
Singa tremens Holmberg, 1876: 16 (f, Argentina) -- Levi, 1972a: 231.
Singa vittata Taczanowski, 1873: 128 (f, French Guiana, listed in Araneus by Petrunkevitch, 1911: 324) -- Levi, 1972a: 231.
Singa albobivittata Caporiacco, 1947 | f | Tanzania     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017035]
Singa albobivittata Caporiacco, 1947d: 164, f. 24 (Df).
Singa albodorsata Kauri, 1950 | f | South Africa     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017036]
Singa albodorsata Kauri, 1950: 11, f. 8a-c (Df).
Singa alpigena Yin, Wang & Li, 1983 | m f | China     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017037]
Singa alpigena Yin, Wang & Li, 1983: 374, f. 1-7, 9 (Dmf).
Singa alpigena Song, 1987: 175, f. 135 (mf).
Singa alpigena Song, Chen & Zhu, 1997: 1717, f. 20a-c (f).
Singa alpigena Yin et al., 1997d: 390, f. 282a-h (mf).
Singa alpigena Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 309, f. 183E-F, K-L, 185J (mf).
Singa alpigena Zhu et al., 2005: 517, f. 6A-F (mf).
Singa alpigena Yin et al., 2012: 759, f. 379a-h (mf).
Singa alpigenoides Song & Zhu, 1992 | m f | China     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017038]
Singa alpigenoides Song & Zhu, 1992c: 171, f. 8A-B (Dm).
Singa alpigenoides Song & Li, 1997: 415, f. 20A-B (m).
Singa alpigenoides Yin et al., 1997d: 391, f. 283a-d (m).
Singa alpigenoides Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 309, f. 183M-N (m).
Singa alpigenoides Zhu et al., 2005: 518, f. 7A-E (m, Df).
Singa ammophila Levy, 2007 | f | Israel     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:041054]
Singa ammophila Levy, 2007: 27, f. 67-69 (Df).
Singa aussereri Thorell, 1873 | m f | Europe     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017039]
Singa aussereri Thorell, 1873: 456 (D).
Singa rufula Simon, 1874a: 131, pl. 2, f. 4 (Df; see also Simon, 1873a: 173, pl. 3, f. 5).
Singa sanguinea Chyzer & Kulczyński, 1891: 135, pl. 5, f. 29 (mf, misidentified).
Singa rufula Becker, 1896: (2): 48, pl. 10, f. 3 (f, Dm).
Araneus rufulus Simon, 1929: 703, 705, 767, f. 1099-1101 (mf).
Hypsosinga aussereri Thaler & Knoflach, 2003: 638 (considered a nomen dubium, without discussion of most of the above treatments).
Singa bifasciata Schenkel, 1936 | f | China     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017040]
Singa bifasciata Schenkel, 1936b: 118, f. 41 (Df).
Singa chota Tikader, 1970 | f | India     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017041]
Singa chota Tikader, 1970: 35, f. 22a-b (Df).
Singa chota Tikader & Biswas, 1981: 43, f. 70-71 (f).
Singa concinna Karsch, 1884 | j | São Tomé and Príncipe     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017042]
Singa concinna Karsch, 1884a: 66 (Djj).
Singa cruciformis Yin, Peng & Wang, 1994 | m f | China     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017043]
Singa cruciformis Yin, Peng & Wang, 1994: 109, f. 27-31 (Dmf).
Singa cruciformis Yin et al., 1997d: 392, f. 284a-e (mf).
Singa cruciformis Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 309, f. 183G-H, O-P, 185K (mf).
Singa cyanea (Worley, 1928) | f | USA     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017044]
Lithyphantes cyaneus Worley, 1928: 621, f. 5-6 (Df).
Singa cyanea Levi, 1957b: 376 (Tf from Lithyphantes=Steatoda).
Singa eugeni Levi, 1972 | m f | USA     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017045]
Singa rubella Keyserling, 1893: 284, pl. 14, f. 209 (f, misidentified).
Singa eugeni Levi, 1972a: 236, f. 25-34 (Dmf).
Singa eugeni Levi, 2002: 549, f. 201-202 (m).
Singa eugeni Dondale et al., 2003: 277, f. 641-648 (mf).
Singa haddooensis Tikader, 1977 | f | India (Andaman Is.)     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017046]
Singa haddooensis Tikader, 1977a: 183, f. 13A-B (Df).
Singa hamata (Clerck, 1757) * | m f | Europe, Turkey, Russia (Europe to Far East), Caucasus to Central Asia, China, Korea, Japan     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017047]
Araneus hamatus Clerck, 1757: 51, pl. 3, f. 4 (Df).
Aranea hamata Olivier, 1789: 210.
Aranea tubulosa Walckenaer, 1802: 200 (D).
Epeira tubulosa Walckenaer, 1805: 62.
Singa hamata C. L. Koch, 1836a: 42, f. 197-198 (f, Dm).
Epeira tubulosa Walckenaer, 1841: 86 (Dmf).
Singa serrulata C. L. Koch, 1844: 153 (D).
Zilla hamata Thorell, 1856: 107.
Epeira tubulosa Blackwall, 1864a: 364, pl. 28, f. 262 (mf).
Singa hamata Menge, 1866: 82, pl. 13, f. 22 (mf).
Singa hamata Hansen, 1882: 22, pl. 1, f. 38 (mf).
Singa hamata Chyzer & Kulczyński, 1891: 134, pl. 5, f. 24 (mf).
Singa hamata Becker, 1896: (2): 43, pl. 9, f. 4 (mf).
Singa hamata Bösenberg, 1901: 49, pl. 3, f. 41 (mf).
Araneus hamatus Lessert, 1910b: 333.
Araneus hamatus Simon, 1929: 701, 765, f. 1093 (mf).
Singa hamata Wiehle, 1931: 42, f. 54-57 (mf).
Aranea hamata Reimoser, 1932: 12, f. 3 (mf).
Singa hamata Drensky, 1943: 231, f. 10 (mf).
Singa hamata Locket & Millidge, 1953: 157, f. 102B, 103C, 105C (mf).
Singa hamata Yaginuma, 1960: 59, f. 57 (f).
Singa hamata Zamaraev, 1964: 353, f. 21, 23-25 (mf).
Singa hamata Yaginuma, 1965b: 363, f. 3.1 (f).
Singa hamata Azheganova, 1968: 90, f. 179-180, 194 (mf).
Singa hamata Miller, 1971: 206, pl. XXXVIII, f. 3-5 (mf).
Singa hamata Yaginuma, 1971: 59, f. 57 (f).
Singa hamata Tyschchenko, 1971: 193, f. 559, 562 (mf).
Singa hamata Loksa, 1972: 99, f. 90, 91C-E (mf).
Singa hamata Levi, 1972a: 232, f. 1-8 (mf).
Singa hamata Bakhvalov, 1974: 108, f. 18-19, 22-23 (mf).
Singa hamata Palmgren, 1974a: 8, f. 3a-c (mf).
Singa hamata Yin, 1978: 7, f. 17A-C (f).
Singa hamata Paik & Namkung, 1979: 47, f. 30.1-2 (mf).
Singa hamata Song, 1980: 109, f. 54a-c (f).
Singa hamata Yin, Wang & Li, 1983: 376, f. 8, 10 (m).
Singa hamata Levy, 1984: 122, f. 9-10 (f).
Singa hamata Hu, 1984: 129, f. 130.1-3 (mf).
Singa hamata Roberts, 1985: 218, f. 99a (mf).
Singa hamata Guo, 1985: 71, f. 2-24.1-3 (mf).
Singa hamata Zhu & Shi, 1985: 86, f. 75a-e (mf).
Singa hamata Yaginuma, 1986a: 107, f. 57.1 (f).
Singa hamata Song, 1987: 176, f. 136 (mf).
Singa hamata Zhang, 1987: 88, f. 72.1-5 (mf).
Singa hamata Hu & Wu, 1989: 107, f. 82.1-3 (mf).
Singa hamata Chikuni, 1989b: 76, f. 41 (mf).
Singa hamata Feng, 1990: 98, f. 73.1-3 (mf).
Singa hamata Chen & Gao, 1990: 71, f. 89a-b (mf).
Singa hamata Chen & Zhang, 1991: 108, f. 101.1-3 (mf).
Singa hamata Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 90, f. 201 (mf).
Singa hamata Zhao, 1993: 259, f. 121a-c (mf).
Singa hamata Roberts, 1995: 332, f. (mf).
Singa hamata Mcheidze, 1997: 259, f. 577-579 (mf).
Singa hamata Yin et al., 1997d: 393, f. 285a-f (mf).
Singa hamata Roberts, 1998: 345, f. (mf).
Singa hamata Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 309, f. 183I-J, 184A-B (mf).
Singa hamata Hu, 2001: 473, f. 313.1-3 (mf).
Singa hamata Song, Zhu & Chen, 2001: 224, f. 137A-D (mf).
Singa hamata Namkung, 2002: 284, f. 19.45a-b (mf).
Singa hamata Kim & Kim, 2002: 224, f. 68, 153-154, 287 (mf).
Singa hamata Namkung, 2003: 286, f. 19.45a-b (mf).
Singa hamata Almquist, 2005: 176, f. 181a-h (mf).
Singa hamata Tanikawa, 2007c: 54, f. 80, 479-480 (mf).
Singa hamata Crespo, 2008: 403, f. 1A-B (mf).
Singa hamata Tanikawa, 2009: 431, f. 63-64 (mf).
Singa hamata Zhu & Zhang, 2011: 247, f. 178A-D (mf).
Singa hamata Yin et al., 2012: 760, f. 380a-f (mf).
Singa hamata Kim & Lee, 2012b: 108, f. 80A-C, pl. 23 (mf).
Singa hilira Barrion & Litsinger, 1995 | f | Philippines     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017049]
Singa hilira Barrion & Litsinger, 1995: 610, f. 382a-g (Df).
Singa kansuensis Schenkel, 1936 | j | China     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017050]
Singa kansuensis Schenkel, 1936b: 116 (Dj).
Singa keyserlingi McCook, 1894 | m f | USA, Canada     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017051]
Singa keyserlingi McCook, 1894: 230, pl. 19, f. 2 (Df).
Singa campestris Emerton, 1915b: 153, pl. 3, f. 3 (Dm).
Singa keyserlingi Levi, 1972a: 232, f. 9-24 (removed f from S of S. pratensis per Roewer, Sm).
Singa keyserlingi Levi, 2002: 541, f. 100-101 (f).
Singa keyserlingi Paquin & Dupérré, 2003: 49, f. 344-346 (mf).
Singa keyserlingi Dondale et al., 2003: 275, f. 632-640 (mf).
Singa lawrencei (Lessert, 1930) | f | Congo     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017052]
Araneus (S.) lawrencei Lessert, 1930: 658, f. 30 (Df).
Singa leucoplagiata (Simon, 1899) | f | Indonesia (Sumatra)     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017053]
Araneus (S.) leucoplagiatus Simon, 1899a: 90 (Df).
Singa lucina (Audouin, 1826) | m f | Mediterranean to Central Asia     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017054]
Epeira lucina Audouin, 1826: 345, pl. 3, f. 4 (Df).
Singa lucina Chyzer & Kulczyński, 1891: 134, pl. 5, f. 23 (f).
Araneus lucina Simon, 1929: 701, 766, f. 1095, 1097 (f, Dm).
Singa lucina Drensky, 1943: 231, f. 12 (f).
Singa lucina Loksa, 1972: 98, f. 91A-B (f).
Singa lucina Levy, 1984: 122, f. 1-8 (f).
Singa lucina Levy, 1991: 231, f. 13-17 (m).
Singa lucina eburnea (Simon, 1929) | m f | Algeria, Tunisia     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017055]
Araneus lucina eburnea Simon, 1929: 701 (Dmf).
Singa myrrhea (Simon, 1895) | f | India     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017056]
Araneus myrrheus Simon, 1895a: 824 (Df).
Singa myrrhea Roewer, 1942a: 876.
Singa neta (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872) | m f | Mediterranean, Iraq     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017057]
Epeira neta O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872: 298 (Dmf).
Lithyphantes septem-guttatus Simon, 1873a: 84 (Df).
Cercidia decora Simon, 1891b: 198 (Df).
Araneus decorus Simon, 1929: 701, 705, 766 (Dm).
Lithyphantes pollocki Denis, 1956b: 277, f. 2-4 (Df).
Steatoda pollocki Brignoli, 1983c: 412.
Singa neta Levy, 1984: 124, f. 26-41 (Tmf from Araneus, S).
Hypsosinga decora Morano & Ferrández, 1986: 174, f. 5-8 (f).
Singa nitidula C. L. Koch, 1844 | m f | Europe, Turkey, Russia (Europe to Far East), Caucasus to Central Asia     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017058]
Epeira tubulosa Hahn, 1831a: 10, f. 6 (mf, misidentified).
Singa nitidula C. L. Koch, 1844: 149, f. 946-947 (mf).
Singa nitidula Chyzer & Kulczyński, 1891: 134, pl. 5, f. 25 (mf).
Singa nitidula Becker, 1896: (2): 45, f. 5-5c (mf).
Singa nitidula Bösenberg, 1901: 50, pl. 3, f. 42 (mf).
Araneus nitidulus Lessert, 1910b: 334.
Araneus nitidulus Fedotov, 1912a: 88, f. 33 (f).
Araneus nitidulus Simon, 1929: 702, 765, f. 1094, 1098 (mf).
Singa nitidula Wiehle, 1931: 44, f. 58-61 (mf).
Singa nitidula Drensky, 1943: 231, f. 11 (mf).
Singa nitidula Tullgren, 1952: 162, f. 7a-c (mf).
Singa nitidula Beer, 1964: 529, f. 11 (f).
Singa nitidula Zamaraev, 1964: 353, f. 26-27 (f).
Singa nitidula Azheganova, 1968: 90, f. 181, 195 (mf).
Singa nitidula Tyschchenko, 1971: 193, f. 560, 563 (mf).
Singa nitidula Loksa, 1972: 99, f. 91F-H (mf).
Singa nitidula Bakhvalov, 1974: 108, f. 20-21, 25 (mf).
Singa nitidula Palmgren, 1974a: 10, f. 3d-g (mf).
Singa nitidula Levy, 1984: 122, f. 11-12 (f).
Singa nitidula Heimer & Nentwig, 1991: 90, f. 202 (mf).
Singa nitidula Thaler, 1991b: 54, f. 36-41 (mf).
Singa nitidula Roberts, 1995: 333, f. (mf).
Singa nitidula Mcheidze, 1997: 259, f. 575-576 (mf).
Singa nitidula Roberts, 1998: 345, f. (mf).
Singa nitidula Aakra, 2005: 34, f. 11 (m).
Singa nitidula Almquist, 2005: 177, f. 182a-e (mf).
Singa perpolita (Thorell, 1892) | f | Singapore     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017059]
Epeira perpolita Thorell, 1892a: 237 (Df).
Epeira perpolita Workman, 1896: 46, pl. 46 (f).
Singa perpolita Roewer, 1942a: 876.
Singa semiatra L. Koch, 1867 | m f | Mediterranean, Ukraine, Russia (Europe), Iraq, Iran     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017062]
Singa semiatra L. Koch, 1867c: 860 (Dm).
Singa semiatra Simon, 1929: 700, 766, f. 1096 (f, Dm).
Singa semiatra Drensky, 1943: 231, f. 12 (f).
Singa semiatra Levy, 1984: 124, f. 13-25 (mf).
Singa semiatra Izmailova, 1989: 64, f. 45 (f).
Singa semiatra Marusik, 2009h: 14, f. 4, 10 (f).
Singa simoniana Costa, 1885 | f | Italy (Sardinia)     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017063]
Singa simoniana Costa, 1885: 255 (Df).
Singa theodori (Thorell, 1894) | f | Indonesia (Java)     [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:017064]
Epeira (S.) theodori Thorell, 1894a: 46 (Df).
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