Taxon details


Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820)

  • Rank: Species (Genus type)
  • Status: accepted
  • Described: m f
  • Last updated: 2017-11-17
  • LSID: [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:002730]
  • Distribution: Southern Europe, northern Africa to Iran. Introduced to USA, Macaronesia, South Africa, India, China, Japan, Korea, Laos, Thailand, Australia, Hawaii
Taxonomic references
Scytodes rufescens Dufour, 1820c: 203, pl. 76, f. 5 (Dm).
Scytodes rufescens Audouin, 1826: 379, pl. 5, f. 2 (Df).
Loxosceles citigrada Heineken & Lowe, in Lowe, 1832: 322, pl. 48, f. 1-14 (Dmf).
Scytodes erythrocephala C. L. Koch, 1838: 90, f. 399-400 (Dmf).
Scytodes distincta Lucas, 1846: 104, pl. 2, f. 4 (Dmf).
Omosita rufescens Simon, 1864: 50, 451.
Scytodes pallida Blackwall, 1865a: 100 (Dm) [misidentified].
Loxosceles erythrocephala Simon, 1873a: 38 (m).
Loxosceles rufescens Simon, 1873a: 38.
Loxosceles erythrocephala Pavesi, 1876a: 435.
Spermophora comoroensis Butler, 1879b: 43, pl. 1, f. 5 (Dm).
Loxosceles compactilis Simon, 1881e: 6 (Df).
Loxosceles rufescens Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 113, pl. 6, f. 69, pl. 16, f. 450 (mf).
Loxosceles distincta Simon, 1908a: 422.
Loxosceles rufescens Simon, 1914: 75, 76, f. 126 (mf).
Loxosceles erythrocephala Simon, 1914: 75, 77, f. 127 (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Strand, 1918: 91, pl. 2, f. 28-29 (m).
Loxosceles rufescens Petrunkevitch, 1929b: 108, f. 92-96 (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Bristowe, 1938a: 311, f. 6.
Loxosceles rufescens Comstock, 1940: 108, f. 96 (m).
Loxosceles rufescens Yaginuma, 1940: 129, f. 3 (m).
Loxosceles marylandicus Muma, 1944: 2, f. 1 (Dm).
Loxosceles rufescens Gerhardt, 1944: 13, f. 6 (m).
Loxosceles rufescens Gertsch, 1958b: 31, f. 60-62, 73 (mf, S).
Loxosceles rufescens Bücherl, 1961: 213, f. 2a (m).
Loxosceles indrabeles Tikader, 1963f: 23, f. 1a-c (Dmf).
Loxosceles rufescens Lee, 1966: 24, f. 5a-d (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Gertsch, 1967a: 144, pl. 10, f. 5-8 (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Brignoli, 1969b: 156, f. 19-62 (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Canese, 1972a: 83, f. 1 (m).
Loxosceles rufescens Brignoli, 1976a: 144, f. 9-10 (mf, S).
Loxosceles rufescens Paik, 1978d: 572, f. 6-13 (f).
Loxosceles rufescens Yin, Wang & Hu, 1983: 33, f. 1B, 3B (m).
Loxosceles rufescens Gertsch & Ennik, 1983: 353, f. 341-343, 348-351 (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Lehtinen, 1986: 153, f. 4-5, 7 (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Yaginuma, 1986a: 18, f. 12.1 (m).
Loxosceles rufescens Yoshikura, 1987: 155, f. 20.9 (m).
Loxosceles rufescens Xu, 1987a: 3, f. 4A-D (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Chen & Gao, 1990: 37, f. 39a-b (m).
Loxosceles rufescens Chen & Zhang, 1991: 68, f. 60.1-3 (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Dunin, 1992c: 75, f. 1, 5, 10-12 (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 49, f. 19M-N, Q (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Namkung, 2002: 30, f. 2.1a-c (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Saaristo, 2002: 29, f. 84-86 (m).
Loxosceles ruescens Yoo & Kim, 2002a: 25, f. 4 (m, lapsus).
Loxosceles rufescens Namkung, 2003: 30, f. 2.1a-c (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Ono, 2009a: 122, f. 1-6 (m).
Loxosceles rufescens Crespo et al., 2009a: 472, f. 8 (f).
Loxosceles rufescens Saaristo, 2010: 214, f. 31.1-3 (m).
Loxosceles rufescens Le Peru, 2011: 111, f. 112 (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Labarque & Ramírez, 2012: 3, f. 2E, 5A-B, 8A-B, 9E, 10E, 11E, 12E, 13E, 14E, 15E, 16E, 17E, 18E, 19E, 20D-E, 27C-F, 28A-F, 30C-D, 31E (f).
Loxosceles rufescens Lotz, 2012: 29, f. 9G, 10G (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Yin et al., 2012: 148, f. 21a-d (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Mirshamsi, Hatami & Zamani, 2013: 83, f. 1-4 (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Zamani & Rafinejad, 2014: 229, f. 2-4 (m).
Loxosceles rufescens Zamani et al., 2014: 58, f. 1A-B (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Chomphuphuang et al., 2016: 143, f. 3-5, 8-9 (mf).
Loxosceles rufescens Sadeghi, Dashan & Malek-Hosseini, 2017: 157, f. 2-4 (m).
Loxosceles rufescens Lotz, 2017a: 485, f. 12, 31 (mf).
References

Audouin, V. (1826). Explication sommaire des planches d'arachnides de l'Égypte et de la Syrie. In: "Description de l'Égypte, ou recueil des observations et des recherches qui ont été faites en Égypte pendant l'expédition de l'armée franҫaise, publié par les ordres de sa Majesté l'Empereur Napoléon le Grand.". Histoire Naturelle 1(4): 1-339 (arachnids, pp. 99-186). [for year of publication and authorship see Tollitt, 1986] download pdf -- Show included taxa

Blackwall, J. (1865a). Descriptions of recently discovered spiders collected in the Cape de Verde Islands by John Gray, Esq. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (3) 16: 80-101. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Bösenberg, W. & Strand, E. (1906). Japanische Spinnen. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 30: 93-422. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Brignoli, P. M. (1969b). Note sugli Scytodidae d'Italia e Malta (Araneae). Fragmenta Entomologica 6: 121-166. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Brignoli, P. M. (1976a). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Scytodidae (Araneae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 83(1): 125-191. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Bristowe, W. S. (1938a). The classification of spiders. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (B) 108: 285-322. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Bücherl, W. (1961). Aranhas do gênero Loxosceles e loxoscelismo na America. Ciência e Cultura, Sao Paulo 13: 213-224. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Butler, A. G. (1879b). On a small collection of Arachnida from the island of Johanna, etc. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5) 4: 41-44. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Canese, A. (1972a). Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour 1820) en Isla Pucú del Departamento de la Cordillera (Paraguay). Revista Paraguaya de Microbiología 7: 83-85. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Chen, X. E. & Gao, J. C. (1990). The Sichuan farmland spiders in China. Sichuan Science and Technology Publishing House, Chengdu, 226 pp. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Chen, Z. F. & Zhang, Z. H. (1991). Fauna of Zhejiang: Araneida. Zhejiang Science and Technology Publishing House, 356 pp. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Chomphuphuang, N., Deowanish, S., Songsangchote, C., Sivayyapram, V., Thongprem, P. & Warrit, N. (2016). The Mediterranean recluse spider Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820) (Araneae: Sicariidae) established in a natural cave in Thailand. Journal of Arachnology 44(2): 142-147. doi:10.1636/R15-61 download pdf -- Show included taxa

Comstock, J. H. (1940). The spider book, revised and edited by W. J. Gertsch. Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, xi + 727 pp. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Crespo, L. C., Cardoso, P., Henriques, S. & Gaspar, C. (2009a). Spiders (Araneae) from Porto Santo (Madeira, Portugal): additions to the current knowledge. Boletín de la Sociedad Entomologica Aragonesa 45: 471-475. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Dufour, L. (1820c). Descriptions de cinq arachnides nouvelles. Annales Générales des Sciences Physiques 5: 198-209. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Dunin, P. M. (1992c). The spider family Scytodidae of the USSR fauna. Trudy Zoologieskogo Instituta Akademija Nauk SSSR 226: 74-82. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Gerhardt, U. (1944). Die Formwandlungen eines Organtypus, dargestellt an dem Taster der männlichen Spinnen. Die Gestalt 17: 9-24, pl. 1-5. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Gertsch, W. J. (1958b). The spider genus Loxosceles in North America, Central America, and the West Indies. American Museum Novitates 1907: 1-46. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Gertsch, W. J. (1967a). The spider genus Loxosceles in South America (Araneae, Scytodidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 136: 117-174. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Gertsch, W. J. & Ennik, F. (1983). The spider genus Loxosceles in North America, Central America, and the West Indies (Araneae, Loxoscelidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 175: 264-360. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Koch, C. L. (1838). Die Arachniden. C. H. Zeh'sche Buchhandlung, Nürnberg, Vierter Band, pp. 109-144, Fünfter Band, pp. 1-124. [for the correct year of publication see Brignoli, 1985b] download pdf download pdf -- Show included taxa

Labarque, F. M. & Ramírez, M. J. (2012). The placement of the spider genus Periegops and the phylogeny of Scytodoidea (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Zootaxa 3312: 1-44. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Le Peru, B. (2011). The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mémoires de la Société Linnéenne de Lyon 2: 1-522. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Lee, C. L. (1966). [Spiders of Formosa (Taiwan)]. Taichung Junior Teachers College Publisher, 84 pp. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Lehtinen, P. T. (1986). Evolution of the Scytodoidea. Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Arachnology, Panama 1983, 149-157. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Lotz, L. N. (2012). Present status of Sicariidae (Arachnida: Araneae) in the Afrotropical region. Zootaxa 3522: 1-41. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Lotz, L. N. (2017a). An update on the spider genus Loxosceles (Araneae: Sicariidae) in the Afrotropical region, with description of seven new species. Zootaxa 4341(4): 475-494. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4341.4.2 download pdf -- Show included taxa

Lowe, R. T. (1832). Descriptions of two species of Araneidae, natives of Madeira. The Zoological Journal 5: 320-323. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Lucas, H. (1846). Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. In: Exploration scientifique de l'Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du Gouvernement et avec le concours d'une commission académique. Paris, Sciences physiques, Zoologie 1, 89-271. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Mirshamsi, O., Hatami, M. & Zamani, A. (2013). New record of the Mediterranean recluse spider Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820) and its bite from Khorasan Province, northeast of Iran (Aranei: Sicariidae). Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 9(1): 83-86. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Muma, M. H. (1944). A report on Maryland spiders. American Museum Novitates 1257: 1-14. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Namkung, J. (2002). The spiders of Korea. Kyo-Hak Publishing Co., Seoul, 648 pp. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Namkung, J. (2003). The Spiders of Korea, 2nd. ed. Kyo-Hak Publishing Co., Seoul, 648 pp. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Ono, H. (2009a). The spiders of Japan with keys to the families and genera and illustrations of the species. Tokai University Press, Kanagawa, 739 pp. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Paik, K. Y. (1978d). On the two spiders of Oonopidae and Loxoscelidae. Research Review of Kyungpook National University 25/26: 571-576. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Pavesi, P. (1876a). Le prime crociere del Violante, comandato dal Capitano-Armatore Enrico d'Albertis. Risultati aracnologici. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 8: 407-451. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Petrunkevitch, A. (1929b). The spiders of Porto Rico. Part one. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 30: 1-158. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Saaristo, M. I. (2002). New species and interesting new records of spiders from Seychelles (Arachnida, Araneaea [sic]). Phelsuma 10(suppl. A): 1-31. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Saaristo, M. I. (2010). Araneae. In: Gerlach, J. & Y. Marusik (eds.) Arachnida and Myriapoda of the Seychelles islands. Siri Scientific Press, Manchester UK, pp. 8-306. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Sadeghi, S., Dashan, M. & Malek-Hosseini, M. J. (2017). Mediterranean Recluse Spider, Loxosceles rufescens (Araneae: Sicariidae) from Charkhab Cave, southern Iran. Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases 11(1): 156-160. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Simon, E. (1864). Histoire naturelle des araignées (aranéides). Paris, pp. 1-540. download pdf download pdf -- Show included taxa

Simon, E. (1873a). Aranéides nouveaux ou peu connus du midi de l'Europe. (2e mémoire). Mémoires de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège (2) 5: 187-351. [separately paginated version is 1-174, only that version seen and cited here] download pdf -- Show included taxa

Simon, E. (1881e). Descriptions d'arachnides nouveaux d'Afrique. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 6: 1-15. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Simon, E. (1908a). Etude sur les arachnides recueillis par M. le Dr Klaptocz en Tripolitaine. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 26: 419-438. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Simon, E. (1914). Les arachnides de France. Synopsis générale et catalogue des espèces françaises de l'ordre des Araneae. Tome VI. 1re partie. Roret, Paris, 1-308. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Song, D. X., Zhu, M. S. & Chen, J. (1999). The spiders of China. Hebei University of Science and Techology Publishing House, Shijiazhuang, 640 pp. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Strand, E. (1918). Zur Kenntnis japanischer Spinnen, I und II. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 82(A11): 73-113. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Tikader, B. K. (1963f). On a new species of spider of the genus Loxosceles (Family Scytodidae) from India. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, Calcutta 16: 23-25. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Xu, Y. J. (1987a). Preliminary studies on some spiders of the families Scytodidae and Loxoscelidae from Anhui. Journal of the Huizhou Teachers College 1987(1): 1-6. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Yaginuma, T. (1940). [Some notes on Japanese spiders, I]. Acta Arachnologica 5: 123-132. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Yaginuma, T. (1986a). Spiders of Japan in color (new ed.). Hoikusha Publishing Co., Osaka, 305 pp., 64 pls. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Yin, C. M., Wang, J. F. & Hu, Y. J. (1983). Essential types and the evolution of palpal organ of spiders. Journal of Hunan Teachers College (nat. Sci. Ed.) 1983: 31-46. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Yin, C. M., Peng, X. J., Yan, H. M., Bao, Y. H., Xu, X., Tang, G., Zhou, Q. S. & Liu, P. (2012). Fauna Hunan: Araneae in Hunan, China. Hunan Science and Technology Press, Changsha, 1590 pp. download pdf download pdf -- Show included taxa

Yoo, J. C. & Kim, J. P. (2002a). Studies on basic pattern and evolution of male palpal organ (Arachnida: Araneae). Korean Arachnology 18: 13-31. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Yoshikura, M. (1987). The biology of spiders. Japan Scientific Societies Press, Tokyo, 613 pp. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Zamani, A. & Rafinejad, J. (2014). First Record of the Mediterranean Recluse Spider Loxosceles rufescens (Araneae: Sicariidae) from Iran. Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases 8(2): 228-231. download pdf -- Show included taxa

Zamani, A., Mirshamsi, O., Savoji, A. & Shahi, M. (2014). Contribution to the distribution of spiders with significant medical importance (Araneae: Loxosceles and Latrodectus) in Iran, with a new record for the country. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 10(1): 57-66. download pdf -- Show included taxa

External Resource References

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As External Resources, the World Spider Catalog links here to species pages of other databases. They may contain further information for the given species. The databases, listed as External Resources, however, are not managed by World Spider Catalog and the information given there is not necessarily in agreement with the World Spider Catalog. All responsibility for such data is with the external database.

Nentwig, W., Blick, T., Gloor, D., Hänggi, A., Kropf, C.: Spiders of Europe. www.araneae.nmbe.ch. Version 05.2018. doi: 10.24436/1

Edit history
Date Type Reference Detail
2017-11-17 New taxonomic reference entry Gerhardt, 1944 n/a
2017-11-02 New taxonomic reference entry Lotz, 2017a n/a
2017-11-02 Species distribution update Lotz, 2017a n/a (Old value)
2017-04-23 New taxonomic reference entry Sadeghi, Dashan & Malek-Hosseini, 2017 n/a
2016-09-21 New taxonomic reference entry Chomphuphuang et al., 2016 n/a
2016-09-19 New taxonomic reference entry Crespo et al., 2009a n/a
2014-09-15 New taxonomic reference entry Zamani et al., 2014 n/a
2014-07-10 New taxonomic reference entry Zamani & Rafinejad, 2014 n/a
2014-06-25 New taxonomic reference entry Mirshamsi, Hatami & Zamani, 2013 n/a